Educational Psychology is the systematic study of applications of principles of psychology in education. It helps us to understand the behaviour of an individual as a whole. Sociometry is a technique in educational psychology to understand the behaviour of individual. It is based upon the study of behaviour of an individual within the group. It is necessary to see the individual the way he is seen by his fellow pupils to know his behaviour in detail.
Sociometry technique was devised by Moreno and adapted by Jenning for study of students in class-room situation. It is also known as sociogram.
MEANING OF SOCIOMETRY :-
John W. Best :- Sociometry is a technique for describing social relationships that exist between individuals in a group.
Bronfen Brenner :- Sociometry is the method for discovering, describing and evaluating social status, structure and development by measuring the extent of acceptance or rejection between individuals in groups.
The graphical representation of sociometry can be termed as sociogram. In the light of above definitions we can conclude that; Sociometry is the measurement of inter personal relationship prevailing among the group members.
TECHNIQUES OF SOCIOMETRY:-
There are two types of techniques of sociometry.
Guess Who Technique: The questions are asked to each pupils in the group e.g., With whom do you enjoy most in gatherings?. Whom would you like to sit next to you in the class?
Nominating Technique: The questions are asked to the Pupil in the group e.g., Name the star of the Class. Name the leader of your group.
First the Sociometric technique is selected, test is administered, data is collected, data is tabulated and interpretation is drawn on analyzing the collected data. We may represent the data in graphical from.
ADVANTAGES OF SOCIOMETRY:-
1. Sociometry helps in discovering the patterns of choice, rejection, attraction and repulsion among the individuals making up the group.
2. It facilitates the appraisal of the social adjustment of the individuals.
3. It helps in counselling in the area of social skills e.g., If the pupil is maladjusted in the group then counselling is done to improve adjustment.
4. It helps in identifying leaders, isolates, mutual-choice, representatives e.t.c.
5. It is useful to have an idea of a group at a glance.
6. It helps us to form appropriate groups of students for carrying out various activities and projects.
7. Sociometry helps us to understand the characteristics of an individual who is liked or disliked by the group. It also assists us in knowing the qualities of leadership as being appreciated by a particular group.
1. The teacher should try to develop group consciousness in the students.
2. School authorities should impart moral and religious teaching through collective instruction. e.g., Celebrating festivals and important days.
3. Education for patriotism and citizenship should be imparted in the collective gatherings of students.
4. Group techniques should be used to teach intellectual subjects i.e., discussions, seminars, group projects etc.
5. Aesthetic subjects such as art, music and poetry should be taught in higher classes.
6. National days, sports week, festivals etc., should be celebrated to develop social qualities among the students.
7. Competitions and tournaments should be organized to develop sportsmanship and leadership.
8. Training should be given to the students in social living.
9. Teacher should present himself / herself as an example to be followed.
10. Pupils should be motivated to participate in group activities.
To conclude a teacher must have knowledge of process of interaction among students coming from different socioeconomic backgrounds. A teacher well equipped with knowledge of group dynamics can provide better guidance for adjustment & improve emotional and social climate of the class. He can find out causes for conflict, rivalry, fear or anxiety in the group which leads to disturbance in learning process. Based on this he can take remedial measure to maintain conducive environment in the class. Thus intra group relation can be improved & mental health of individual members can be maintained.