CBSE NCERT Class X (10th) | Civics

Chapter – 3 (Democracy and Diversity)


Extra Practice Questions

Q1.   Which of the following is associated with the Civil Rights movement in the U.S.A. (1954-1968) ?
(a)                      Abolishing legal racial discrimination against African Americans.
(b)                     Abolishing unequal income distribution.
(c)                      Health
(d)                     Education
Q2.   Which type of social diversity or division do we find in Belgium ?
(a)     Religious                                              (b)        Linguistic
(c)     Regional                                              (d)        Gender

Q3.   Which one of the following refers to The Black Power Movement (1966-75)’ in USA ?
(a)                                  A non violent reform movement.
(b)                                 The American freedom movement.
(c)                                  A more militant anti-racist movement.
(d)                                 A religious movement.

Q4.   What is not the basis of social divisions in India ?
         (a)        Language                                             (b)        Health
(c)     Region                                                 (d)        Caste

Q5.   Which one of the following is the most important origin of social differences ?
(a)     Accident of birth                                 (b)        Physical abilities
(c)     Kinds of Complexion                          (d)        Tall or Short

Q6.   Which one of the following is the representative political parties of the Catholics in Northern Ireland ?
(a)     Nationalist Parties                                (b)        Unionist
(c)     Democratic Party                                 (d)        Labour Party

Q7.   Which University recently installed the statues of Smith, Carlos and Norman in its campus?       
(a)     The Howard University          
(b)     The Chicago State University
(c)     The Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University
(d)     The San Jose State University

Q8.   Which one of the following is the actual political expression of social divisions in a democracy ?
(a)                                  It results in social inequality and injustice.
(b)                                 It is a normal practice and can prove healthy.
(c)                                  It leads to definite violence.
(d)                                 It is a rare practice and always proves unhealthy.

Short Answer  Type Questions :                                                    

Q1.   Discuss the factors crucial in deciding the outcome of politics of social divisions.
Ans.  (1)        How people perceive their identities.
(2)                                 How Political leaders raise the demands of any community.
(3)                                 How the government reacts to demands of different groups.

Q2.   Mention three similarities between Tommie Smith and John Carlos.
Ans.  (1)        Both were African – Americans.
(2)                                 Both won medals at the Mexico Olympic Games in 1968.
(3)                                 Racial discrimination practiced against Africans in America.

Q3.   What are the different types of democracy ? Discuss its two features.
Ans.  Two types of democracy -      (1)        Direct democracy
                                                         (2)        Indirect democracy
(1)     People may express their feelings and expectations as their demands.
(2)     There is adjustment between two social divisions with different interests.
(3)     Democracy is a system of governance of the people to rule on their own.

Q4. Who was Peter Norman? Why did he support Carlos and Smith? What punishment did he get for this?
Ans.  Peter Norman was an Australian Athlete.
 Norman wore a human rights badge on his shirt during the ceremony to show his support to the dissent of two American Athletes.
 Norman was not included in the Australian team for the next Olympic.

Q5.   Differentiate between direct and indirect democracies.
Direct Democracy
Indirect Democracy
(1) People directly participate in the Government of a country.
(1) People do not participate in the Government.
(2) May be practical for the country with small population.
(2) May be practical for the country with its vast population.
(3) The country provides the opportunity to every member of the society to tell his/her view.
(3) The view of social groups is important and the majority is always influential in the formation of policies or rules.

Long Answer Type Questions :                                                      

Q1. What do you mean by social differences? How do social differences create social division in society?
Ans.  Social differences simply refer to born or biological and socially created inequalities in the society. This mainly based on race, caste, religion, language, culture etc.
(1)     When some social differences overlap with other differences. For example the difference between black and white becomes a social division in the US because the Blacks tend to be poor.
(2)     If social differences cross cut one another, it is difficult to pit one group of people against other. It means that group sharing a common interest on one issue are likely to be on different side on different issues. For example both Northern Island and the Netherlands are predominantly Christian but are divided into Catholics and Protestants.
(3)     The overlapping social differences create possibilities of deep social division and tensions while cross cutting differences are easier to accommodate.

Q3.   Social division can take different forms in societies. Explain.
Ans.  (1)        The racial form of social division, that is social differences on the basis of 
                     colour is widely prevalent in societies.
(2)               The varna and caste based division of society is found in India. Here Brahmins are considered as the highest varna while the Shudras are the lowest. 
(3)     Linguist division is another major form of social division found in all societies. There are more than 1000 languages spoken in the world.
(4)     The social division is also manifested by the cultural and sub cultural divisions of society.

Q4.   Explain two advantages and two disadvantages of social divisions in democracy.
Ans. Advantages
(1)     Political expressions of social divisions is very normal and can be healthy. This allows various disadvantages and marginal social groups to express their grievances and get the government to attend to these.
(2)     Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often results in their canceling one another out and thus reducing their intensity.
(1)     In a democracy the different social groups organize themselves to bring equality, social justice and other vested interests. Sometimes their protest results into violence or conflicts.
(2)     For the society which has high social divisions, becomes very difficult to ensure integrity and unity.
5.   Why is democracy considered the best form of government ? Give Three points.
Ans. (1)        The government is formed by the elected representatives of the   people.
(2)     People have the opportunity to express their thoughts and beliefs. People have the right to change the government. It prevents the government from working arbitrarily.
(3)     It provides all its citizens the opportunity to participate in the government and administration, without any discrimination.

Answer Key of  MCQ:
                     (1)        a          (2)        b          (3)        c          (4)        b          (5)        a

                     (6)        a          (7)        d          (8)        b          

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