CBSE NCERT Class X (10th) | Civics
Chapter – 1 Power Sharing
Belgium And Sri Lanka
Belgium and Sri Lanka showcase their different approach to power sharing, the nature of various conflicts in the countries which rose out of language diversity and how they dealt with it. While Sri Lanka applied Majoritarianism, Belgium used Accommodation.
The Sri Lankan Tamils began an upheaval with the objectives of acknowledging Tamil as an official language, social and political equality and regional sovereignty. In contrast to the above Belgium took up the approach of Accommodation as positive steps to resolve their differences.
Belgium ensured stability through its policy of Accommodation; Whereas in Srilanka, majoritarianism continues to be a threat to the unity and growth.
The Different Types of Power Sharing
Power Sharing is desirable as it lessens conflicts, ensures stability and unity and enhances citizen’s participation.
There are two major reasons that make power sharing in a democracy desirable – Prudential and Moral reasons. Prudential means the constancy of political order is increased by reducing clashes between social groups.
Moral emphasises that the very act of Power Sharing is valuable. It forms the very basis of democracy. Power Sharing among different organs of government – legislature, executive and judiciary. This is called Horizontal Distribution of power. Each organ which holds parallel position checks the other resulting in a balance of power among different institutions. This is also called a system of checks and balances.
Power Sharing in governments is at different levels –National, state or a regional government and as in India, there is a self governing body like the Panchayats in rural areas and Municipalities in urban areas. Power sharing in India is not limited to government but also among different social groups including linguistic and religious groups. This higher and lower division of power is also called Vertical Division of power.
In our country many alienated groups are given reservations in the administration and in government. Under these reservations minority and socially weaker sections are accommodated. When a party fails to get a majority in legislature, different parties come together to form a coalition government and share power.
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