CBSE NCERT Class IX (9th) | Social Studies | Civics
CHAPTER 3: CONSTITUTIONAL DESIGN
Do We Need a Constitution?
Yes. A constitution has written laws accepted by people living together in a country.
· It generates trust and co-ordination.
· It specifies how a government should be constituted.
· It lays down limits on the powers of the government.
· It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society.
Making of the Indian Constitution
· The process began during the national struggle for freedom.
· First draft 1928, then 1931. Motilal Nehru and 8 leaders demanded in the draft: universalAdult franchise, social justice, right to freedom and liberty.
· Participation in Provincial Legislatures helped Indians in framing their constitution.
· Leaders inspired by French Revolution, British parliamentary system and the Bill of Rights of the US. They also learnt what the British were denying Indian citizens.
The Constituent Assembly
· Elections to the Constituent Assembly held in July 1946.
· Dr. B.R. Ambedkar appointed chairman of the drafting committee.
· Constitution adopted on 26 November 1949, and enacted on 26 January, 1950, when IndiaBecame a republic.
· The Constitution reflects the best minds of the country. Its members represented mini-India.Every law was debated clause by clause and a consensus arrived at.It is the longest written constitution.
PROBLEMS FACED WHILE MAKING INDIAN CONSTITUTION
· India was a huge and divers country and making of the constitution was not an easy affair.
· The country was devided on the basis of religious differences.
· The merger of Princely states was adifficult and uncertain task.
· The future of the country was not much secure.
Significance of Preamble to the constitution
The Preamble provides the guidelines of the constitution and is considered to be the key of theconstitution.
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA-
MEMBERS OF CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY
1. Vallabhbhai Patel 2.Abul Kalam Azad 3.T.T. Krishnamachari 4. Rajendra Prasad
5.H. C. Mukherjee 6. Jaipal Singh 7. G. Durgabai Deshmukh 7. Baldev Singh
8. K. M. Munshi 9. B. R. Ambedkar 10. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee
11. Jawahar Lal Nehru 12. Sarojini Naidu 13. Somnath Lahiri .
Democratic Constitution in South Africa
· Nelson Mandela, the South African leader of African National Congress, fought a long battle Against Apartheid.
· Imprisoned for 28 years (1964–1992) emerged as the First President of the Republic of South Africa.
· People struggled against the horrible discrimination practised against them by the white Minority rulers.
· Apartheid finally defeated in 1994 and a new constitution made in 1996.
· Remarkable constitution, forgot past sufferings, sought co-operation of all the races whichMake S. Africa based on equality, democratic values and social justice.