CBSE NCERT Class X (10th) | Social Studies | Geography

Chapter – 6  Manufacturing Industries

Introduction to Manufacturing Industries

The process of using raw material to produce more valuable goods in large quantities is called manufacturing. Industries that manufacture finished products from primary material are called manufacturing industries in the secondary sector.

Manufacturing industries play a crucial role in the overall, and especially the economic development of a country.  A country’s economic strength is measured by the growth of its manufacturing industries.

India is traditionally an agricultural country. The growth in manufacturing industries has modernised farming, has generated a large number of employment opportunities. This has reduced the dependence of people on agriculture, allowed us to export our goods to other countries and build up our reserves of foreign exchange and hence led to overall growth and prosperity. Agriculture and industry mutually benefit each other.

India has a large number of agro-based industries that depend on agricultural produce for raw material. Agriculture plays an important role in expanding our manufacturing industry. Manufacturing industry provides farmers with fertilisers, pesticides, and different types of farming machines and equipment. To stay competitive in the global market, we must ensure that the quality of our goods is at par with the best.

Location and Classification of Industries

The key factor influencing all decisions about setting up a manufacturing industry, including its location, is the cost. The main costs in a manufacturing industry are for procuring raw material, producing goods and distributing finished goods in the market.

The ideal location for a factory will be a place that has easy and low-cost availability of raw material, capital, land, labour, power, transport, and market.

A manufacturing industry promotes the urbanisation of its neighbourhood. Already urbanised areas also attract industries, since they provide ready facilities for transport, banking, labour, consultancy, etc. If an urban centre offers sufficient facilities and advantages, several industries come up there together to form an industrial agglomeration. These industries together form an agglomeration economy.

Before independence, most industries in India were located in port cities to enable easy overseas trade. Manufacturing industries are classified based on their source of raw material, role, capital investment, ownership pattern, and bulk of supplies like raw material and finished products. Based on their source of raw material, manufacturing industries can be classified as agro-based industries and mineral-based industries.

Based on their source of raw material, manufacturing industries are classified as agro-based industries and mineral-based industries. Based on the weight or bulk of the raw material used and the finished products, manufacturing industries can be classified as heavy and light industries. Based on their role, manufacturing industries can be classified as basic or key industries, and consumer industries. Based on the capital investment, manufacturing industries can be classified as small-scale and large scale-industries.

Based on ownership, manufacturing industries can be classified as public sector, private sector, joint sector and cooperative industries.

While public sector industries are owned and run by the government, private sector companies are owned by individuals or business houses. Joint sector companies are jointly owned and managed by the government and the private sector. Cooperative industries are owned by people actually involved in the production, like raw material producers, suppliers and workers.

The total share of industries in India’s GDP is 27% where manufacturing industries contribute only 17% to our GDP.

The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council or NMCC has been set up to achieve a growth of 12% in the manufacturing industry by adopting appropriate policies and improving productivity

Agro-Based Industries and Mineral Based Industries

Manufacturing industries that use minerals as raw material are called mineral-based industries. The iron and steel industry is the basic industry on which all other industries depend. The production and per capita consumption of steel is a measure of a country’s economic development.

The main raw materials used in the iron and steel industry are iron ore, coal and limestone. The raw materials and finished products of iron and steel industries are quite bulky, these industries must be located near the mining areas of the required minerals and must be connected by a good transport network.

India is the ninth largest producer of crude steel and the largest producer of sponge iron in the world. India is also a leading exporter of steel in the world.

The per capita consumption of steel in India is only 32 kilograms. There are 10 primary integrated steel plants in India. These integrated plants handle all stages of steel production, from procurement of basic raw material to producing finished rolled and shaped steel. India has many mini steel plants that produce customised alloy steel using scrap iron or sponge iron as raw material.

China has become the world’s largest producer and consumer of steel, leaving India far behind. Most steel manufacturing industries are located in the Chhota Nagpur Plateau region because of the availability of inexpensive, high-grade raw material and abundant cheap labour. The main challenges faced by the industry in realising its full potential are limited supply of expensive coking coal, erratic power supply, low output of labour and poor infrastructure. The future of India’s iron and steel industry is bright due to India’s liberalisation policy and foreign direct investment in the industry.

Aluminium is a lightweight, corrosion-resistant metal with excellent malleability and ductility. Aluminium is a good conductor of heat and electricity, and can be alloyed with other metals to make it stronger. Aluminium is increasingly being used as a substitute for steel, copper, zinc and lead in several industries.  The process of deriving metallic aluminium from its ore is called aluminium smelting. Aluminium smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India.

Bauxite is the chief ore of aluminium. Bauxite is refined to produce alumina, which is smelted to derive metallic aluminium.

India has 8 aluminium smelting plants located in Orissa, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. The production of aluminium requires the transport of bulky raw materials and large amounts of electricity, assured supply of power and good transport connectivity are the main criteria for the location of an aluminium smelting plant. The Indian chemical industry is the third largest in Asia and the 12th largest in the world. The Indian chemical industry contributes 3% to our national GDP.

The main inorganic chemicals produced in India include sulphuric acid, nitric acid, alkalis, soda ash and caustic soda. Sulphuric acid is used in the production of fertilisers, plastics, synthetic fibres, adhesives, paints and dyes. Soda ash is used in manufacturing soap, glass, detergents and paper. Petrochemicals are materials derived as the by-products of petroleum refining. Petrochemicals are used to manufacture synthetic fibre, synthetic rubber, dyes and paints, fertilisers, adhesives and medicinal drugs.

Industrial Pollution and Environment Degradation

Industries have caused severe pollution of our natural resources. Industries cause environmental degradation through four main types of pollution i.e. air pollution, water pollution, land pollution or soil degradation, and noise pollution.

Smoke contains undesirable gases like carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide, besides solid and liquid particulate matter, in the form of dust and spray mist, which cause air pollution. Air pollution affects the health of humans, animals and plants alike and also causes damage to buildings.

Water pollution is caused by the discharge of untreated chemical waste like dyes, detergents, acids, heavy metals like lead and mercury, pesticides, fertilisers, and plastics from industries, into fresh water bodies like rivers and lakes. Solid wastes like fly ash, phospo gypsum, and iron and steel slag also cause water pollution.

The industries that cause major amount of water pollution are paper and pulp industries, oil refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries. The discharge of hot water from thermal power plants into rivers before cooling is called thermal pollution of water. Radioactive waste, hazardous chemicals, glass, plastic, industrial effluents and non-biodegradable garbage are the main agents of land pollution. Rain water falling on polluted land dissolves and carries many of the pollutants further into the ground and pollutes groundwater.

Loud noise can lead to irritation, loss of hearing, and an increase in blood pressure and heart rate. Industrial machinery, construction activities, generators, and equipment like saws and pneumatic drills are mainly responsible for noise pollution. One of the most important steps for the control of environmental degradation is treating hot and polluted wastewater from industries before releasing it into our rivers and lakes.

Wastewater treatment involves:
  • Primary treatment through screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation.
  • Secondary treatment through bacterial action to digest harmful chemicals.
  • Tertiary stage of stirring with chemicals to neutralise remaining harmful waste.

Treated wastewater can be recycled for reuse in industrial processes. Rainwater harvesting can be used to meet the requirements of water for industrial processes.

Legal provisions must be made to regulate the use of groundwater for industrial use. Smoke stacks, filters, scrubbers, and electrostatic and inertial separators remove a large amount of harmful particles from industrial smoke. The emission of smoke itself from industries can be reduced by using more efficient fuels like oil and natural gas in place of coal.

Industrial and generator silencers, and sound-absorbing material are available to reduce the noise level in industries. Industrial workers can use earphones and earplugs for individual protection of health and hearing.

National Thermal Power Corporation or NTPC is a major electricity generation and distribution company in India. NTPC has demonstrated how conservation of environment and natural resources can happen simultaneously with industrial growth by:
  • Adopting latest technical knowhow
  • Minimising waste
  • Providing green cover
  • Reducing environmental pollution
  • Continuous monitoring

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