CBSE NCERT Class IX (9th) | Social Studies | Geography

Chapter  :  Climate 


CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer


Short Answer Questions(3 Marks)

Q.1  Define Climate. What are the elements of climate? Ans:
i.Climate refers to the sum of total weather conditions and their variations over a large area for a long period of time (more than thirty years).

ii.     The  elements  of  weather  and  climate  are  the  same  i.e.  temperature,  atmospheric  pressure,  wind, humidity and precipitation.

Q.2  What are the controlling elements of the climate of India?
Ans    India’s  climate  is  controlled  by  latitude,  altitude, pressure  and  winds,  distance  from  the  sea,  ocean currents and physiography.

Q.3  Discuss the unifying role of the Indian monsoon.
Ans There is great diversity of the climatic conditions in India due to different locations and land relief patterns. But these diversities are subdued by the monsoon, which blow over the whole country. The arrival of the monsoon is welcomed all over the country.
1. Several festivals are celebrated welcoming the monsoonal rainfall in India.
2. The monsoonal rainfall provides water for agricultural activities.
3. Monsoon gives relief from the scorching heat. The entire life of the Indian people revolves around the monsoon.

Q.4       Distinguish between weather and Climate. Ans

Weather
Climate
i.    Weather    refers    to    the    state    of    the atmosphere at any point of time and place.
i. Climate refers to the sum of total weather conditions and variations over an area for a long period of  time (more than 30 years).
ii. Weather conditions may vary at intervals of a few hours or a few days.
ii. Climate does not change so frequently.
iii. Weather data are the observations recorded at a specific time.
iii. Climate refers to the average value of several elements of weather, relating to a period of more than 30 years.

Q.5 Give three characteristics of monsoonal rainfall in India.
Ans Characteristics of monsoon rainfall are:-
i.   Early in the season, the windward side of the Western Ghats receives heavy rainfall i.e. more than 250 cm.
ii.  The rain shadow areas of Deccan Plateau and parts of Madhya Pradesh receive scanty rainfall. The maximum rainfall is recorded in the north eastern part of the country.
iii.The frequency and intensity of tropical depressions determine the amount and duration of monsoon rains.

Q.6 What are the western disturbances?
Ans Western Disturbance is the term used in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nepal to describe an extra tropical storm originating in the Mediterranean that brings sudden winter rain and snow to the northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent. This is a non-monsoonal precipitation pattern driven by the Westerly. The moisture in these storms usually originates over the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.

Q.7 What is El Nino? Mention any of its two effects.
Ans El Nino is a warm ocean current that flows over Peru in an interval of two to five years. The term El Nino, derived from Spanish, means ‘the child’, i.e. baby Christ. It flows in the month of December.
Its effects are :-
i.   Surface temperature in sea is increased.Ii.   Trade winds in the region are weakened.

Q.8 What are the six controlling elements of the climate of India? 
Ans   India’s climate is controlled by
1. Latitude  2. Altitude   3. Pressure and winds
4. Distance from the sea 5. Ocean currents  6. Physiography

Q.9 What is a monsoon?
Ans   The term Monsoon is derived from the Arabic word ‘mausim’, meaning season, applied by the Arabs to the seasonal winds of the Arabian Sea. Monsoon winds mean a complete reversal in the direction of wind over a large part of the land, causing seasons.

Q.10     What do you understand by the term ‘burst of monsoon’? What are the two branches of Indian monsoon?
Ans Around the time of the arrival of the monsoons, the normal rainfall increases suddenly and continues constantly for several days. This is known as the ‘burst of the monsoon’
Monsoon gets divided into two branches–
(i) The Arabian Sea branch: The Arabian Sea branch reaches Mumbai, as the name suggests it strikes India from Arabian Sea side.
(ii)The Bay of Bengal branch: The Bay of Bengal branch also advances rapidly and arrives in Assam in the first week of June. This branch is responsible for giving Meghalaya the highest rainfall in the world.

Q.11     What is Inter Tropical Convergence Zone? Write two features. Ans
1. Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the area encircling the earth near the equator where winds originating in the northern and southern hemispheres come together. This is a low-pressure tropical trough.
2. In summer it is over the Ganga plain. This equatorial trough is normally positioned about 5°N of the equator. It is also known as the monsoon trough during the monsoon season.
3. This trough keeps on changing its position according to the time of the year.

Q.12     Explain any three factors that affect the climate of a place?
(Ans)    Factors that affect the climate of a place are:
1.Latitude: Due to the curvature of the earth, the amount of solar energy received varies according to the latitude. As a result, air temperature decreases from the equator towards the poles.
2. Altitude: As one goes from the surface of the earth to higher altitudes, the atmosphere becomes less dense and temperature decreases. The hills are therefore cooler during summers.
3. Distance from the sea: The sea exerts a moderating influence on climate. As the distance from the sea increases, its moderating influence decreases and the people experience extreme weather conditions.

Q.13     Write any three features of western cyclonic disturbances? Ans Three features of western cyclonic disturbances are:
1. The western cyclonic disturbances are weather phenomena of the winter months brought in by the westerly flow from the Mediterranean region.
2. They usually influence the weather of the north and north-western regions of India.
3. Tropical cyclones occur during the monsoon as well as in October - November, and are part of the easterly flow. These disturbances affect the coastal regions of the country.

Long Answer Questions (5 Marks)

Q.1 Discuss the mechanisms of the Indian monsoons.
Ans The mechanism of Indian Monsoons:-
(i) The different heating and cooling of land and water: At the end of May, due to high temperature, low pressure is created on the landmass of India while seas around experience comparatively high pressure. It fixes the direction of the moisture laden wind from sea to land.
(ii)The shift of the position of Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) : In summer, low pressure trough is positioned over the Ganga plain, making the region suitable for the occurrence of rain.
(iii)The intensity and position of the high atmospheric pressure over the Indian Ocean affects the Indian monsoon.
(iv) The Tibetan plateau gets intensely heated during summer which results in strong vertical air currents and formation of high pressure over the plateau at about 9km above the sea level.
(v)The movements of the westerly Jet Streams to the north of the Himalayas and the presence of the tropical easterly Jet Streams over the Indian Peninsula during the summer affects monsoon.

Q.2       Distinguish between South-west monsoon and North-east monsoon. Ans

South-West Monsoon
North-East Monsoon
i) The season is from June to September.
i)  This  season  starts  from  December  and  ends  in February.
ii) It does not rain continuously. There are rainless intervals in this season.
ii) It does not possess any rainless intervals.
iii) It blows in India in two branches, namely the Arabian Sea branch and Bay of Bengal branch.
iii) It does not have any branches.
iv) Major portion of annual rainfall in India is due to this type of monsoon.
iv) Minor portion of the annual rainfall in India is due to this type of monsoon.


Q.3       Distinguish between Equable climate and Continental climate. Ans

Equable Climate
Continental Climate
i) Area which are neither too warm in summers nor not  too cold in  winters (with  low range of temperature) are said to have an equable climate.
i) Places with higher range of temperature (extremes of temperature)
Experience extreme climate, it is known as continental climate.
ii)  Equable  climates  are  characterized  by  well distributed rainfall throughout the year.
ii) Rainfall in extreme climate is restricted to summer months.
iii) This type of climate is found in places located close to the sea having the moderating influence of the sea.
iii) Interiors of continents/countries which have the least influence of the sea experience have this type of climate.
iv) Chennai, Cochin, Mumbai etc.
iv) Delhi, Kanpur, Bhopal etc.

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