CBSE NCERT Class IX (9th) | Social Studies | Civics



Q.1.         Who was Allende?
Ans. 1. Allende was the founder leader of the Socialist Party of Chile, a country in South America.
2.                He led the Popular Unity Coalition to victory in 1970 and became the President of Chile.
3.                AsPresident he took several policy decisions to help the poor and the workers.

Q.2.         Why did the workers of Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk go on strike in 1980?
Ans.The workers the Lenin Shipyard in the city of Gdansk went on a strike on 14 Aug 1980. The factory was owned by the government. The workers went on a strike demanding the factory to take back a crane operator, a woman worker, who was unjustly dismissed from the service..

Q3What role does General Assembly play in the UN?
Ans. General Assembly is like the Parliament of UN where all the discussions take place. In that sense, the UN would appear to be a very democratic organisation. But the General Assembly cannot take any decision about what action should be taken in a conflict between countries.

Q.4. State how Security Council helps in making the UN a democratic body.
Ans.The Security Council has 15 members – 5 permanent and 10 non-permanent members. This
15 member Security Council of the the UN takes crucial decisions. However, the real power is with the five permanent members; and they possess the veto power. So, Security Council doesn’t help much in making the UN a democratic body.

Q.5.         Should a democratic country wage a war and invade other countries for establishing democracy there? Give your opinion stating at least one example.
Ans.In my opinion, the democratic countries do not have any right to wage a war in order to establish democracy in non-democratic countries. The attack of US on Iraq, blaming it for possessing the weapons of mass destruction, was more because of its own ambition than establishment of democracy there. Moreover, unless people of a nation are themselves actively engaged in a struggle to make their society democratic, external help will be hardly of any help.

Q.6.         The functioning of UN Security Council is undemocratic. Justify the statement by giving three suitable examples? 
Ans. (i) The real power is with the five permanent members.       (ii) These members have veto power. (iii)Security Council cannot take a decision if these permanent members say No to it.

Q.7.         What policies were adopted by Salvador Allende after his election as President of Chile in 1970? Assess any three reforms?
Ans. (i) Reform of the educational system.                         (ii) Free milk for children. (iii)Redistribution of land to the landless farmers.

Q.8.         'International Monetary Fund is not truely democratic institution.' Justify this statement with three examples?
Ans. (i) IMF's 173 member states do not have equal voting rights.
(ii) The vote of each country is weighed by how much money it has contributed to the IMF. (iii)Nearly half of the voting power is in the hands of only seven countries.

Q.9. Who was elected as President of Chile in 1970? What steps did he take to help the poor? Ans. Salvador Allende was elected president of Chile in 1970. (i) He reformed education system;
(ii) He provides free milk for children; and (iii) He arranged redistribution of land to the landless farmers.

Q.10.     In Poland how was democracy re-established?
Ans. Lech Walesa – an electrician, joined the strikers (workers of Lenin Shipyard). He became popular. The government agreed to the workers, demand. An independent trade union was formed. Soon it had one core members. The government tried to put it down. Another wave of strike followed. This time it resulted in an agreement in 1989 for free elections. Walesa was elected President of Poland.

Q.11.     Mention any three features of democracy
Ans. (i) Allende’s democratic government preferred government control on big industries and economy.
(ii)             Walesa wanted the market to be free of government interference.
(iii)            Michelle stands somewhere in the middle.

Q.12.     Who was Lech Walesa
Ans-Lech Walesa was a former electrician of the Lenin Shipyard. He joined and then led the striking workers. He signed a 21 point agreement with the government that ended the strike.
A new trade union called Solidarity was formed.
General Jaruzeleski imposed martial law.Another wave of strike follwed in April 1989. Free election was held. Solidarity won 99 out of 100 seats. Walesa was elected President of Poland.

Q.13.     Who was Salvador Allende? Why was his policy opposed?
Ans. Salvador Allende was the President of Chile. The landlords, the rich and the church opposed his reforms and policies.

Q.14.     How did Solidarity come to power in Poland?
Ans.On 11 September 1973 the military took over the seaport. The Defence Minister was arrested by the military. Allende was asked to resign. He addressed the nation on the radio. It was his last speech. He died in a military attack on the president's house.


Q.1.Differenciate between Pinochet’s rule in Chile and the communist rule inPoland? Ans.1- Pinochet, an Army General supported by the government of USA, led a coup in Chile in
1973  against  Allende’s  popularly  elected  government.  With  this,  dictatorship  was  established  in  Chile.  2-Pinochet’s government tortured and killed several of those who supported Allende and wanted to restore democracy there.
3-               In Poland, a Communist Party called Polish United Workers’ Party ruled in 1980. No other political party was allowed to function. The government of Poland was supported by Soviet Union.
4-               But when the movement led by Lech Walesa spread, demanding the workers’ rights, the government had to give in.
5-               Finally, an agreement was signed between Walesa and the Polish government in April 1989 for free elections. In 1990, elections were held in which more than one party could contest.

Q.2. Write major demands made in the 19th century to established democracy in the world?
Ans.1-In the 19th century, struggles for democracy often centred round political equality, freedom and justice.
2-               There was a demand for right to vote for every adult citizen. Many European countries that were becoming more democratic did not initially allow all people to vote.
3-               In some countries, only people owning property had the right to vote. Often women did not have the right to vote.
4-               Those struggling for democracy wanted “universal suffrage”, i.e. voting right for all adults – men or women, rich or poor, white or black.

Q.3.What was the major changes that took place in India’s neighbourhood in the 1990s and 2005? Ans1-In the 1990s, Pakistan and Bangladesh made a transition from army rule to democracy.
2. InNepal the king gave up many of his powers to become a constitutional monarch to be guided by elected leaders.
3. However, these changes were not permanent. In 1999, General Musharraf set up army rule in Pakistan. In
2005, the new king of Nepal dismissed the elected government and took back political freedoms that people had won in the previous decade.

Q4.Distinguish between the democratic and non democratic conditions?
Ans-{A} a democratic government is elected by the people while a nondemocratic government is not elected by the people.
{B}Under democracy people are given basic rights while under nondemocratic conditions people are not given basic rights.
{C} in democracy there are regular elections though which people can change their government but not in nondemocratic conditions.
{D}Under  democracy  the  government  works  within  the  constitution  but  in  nondemocratic  country  these conditions do not apply.
{E] In democracy Parliament is supreme but undern nondemocratic conditions, ruler is supreme.


Q.1 Discuss any three contributions of UN as a government of the world?
Ans.  (i)  It  is  a  global  association  of  nations  of  the  world  to  help  in  international  law  securityEconomic development and social equity.
(ii)             It maintains peace and security among countries; it can put together on International Army.
(iii)            It can take action against the wrong doer.

Q.2. State how democracy was crushed in Myanmar after the elections were held there in 1990. Ans.1-In 1990, in Myanmar, elections were held for the first time after almost 28 years.
2-               The National League for Democracy led by Aung San Sui Kyi won the election. But the military leaders of Myanmar refused to step down and did not recognise the election results.
3-               The military put the elected pro-democracy leaders, including Sui Kyi, under house arrest. Anyone caught publicly airing views or issuing statements critical of the regime could be sentenced up to twenty years in

Q3. In the absence of a single world government, what kind of limits is put on what the governments do? Ans
1.   There is no single world government, but there are many institutions in the world that perform partially the functions of such a government.
2.                These organisations cannot command countries and citizens in a way a government can, but they do make rules that put limits on what governments can do.
3.                The United Nations has evolved many conventions on these questions that are now binding on the countries of the world.
4.                The UN Security Council is responsible for maintaining peace and security among countries.
5.                The International Monetary Fund lends money to governments when they need it. The World Bank also gives loans to the government’s prison.

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