Education is an activity which goes on in a society and its aims and methods depend on the nature of the society in which it takes place. The aims, curriculum and discipline are always related to situations and life. It must be in accordance with the physical and social needs of the community. Presently because of globalization there has been a sea change in the socio-economic scenario. Educational system must be in accordance with the changing needs and aspirations of society. The developmental needs signify the quality educational system with flexible curriculum with a process of collective institutional learning and development, promoting research in education, working out with new technologies and methodologies for imparting instructions.
EDUCATING TO MEET DEVELOPMENTAL NEEDS
As observed by the Human Development Report (2004), “The ideas behind the human development paradigm are not new, they are at least as old as Aristotle. Aristotle argued that “Wealth is evidently not the good we are seeking, for it is merely used and for the sake of something else”. Economic growth is merely a means; only economic growth is not a criterion of human development. Education for human developmental needs focuses on four important capabilities, to lead a long and healthy life, to be knowledgeable, to have access to the life of the community. Education for developmental needs must achieve a long and healthy life, as measured by life expectancy at birth, knowledge as measured by the adult literacy rate and the combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ration, a decent standard of living, as measured by GDP per capita. There should be a total quality improvement in the arena of education, health and research and policy, planning, implementation and monitoring of the above from time to time.
BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION OF WORLD CITIZENSHIP
Previously there had been no great tradition of series of compulsory subjects. Citizenship was designated as one of the components of it. It was the Britishers who formally encouraged delivering Citizenship Education. Schools were given the discretion to decide for themselves how to impart citizenship education. Many teachers in primary schools found it difficult to appreciate the relevance of Citizenship to early year‘s education and in secondary schools, the cross-curricular themes struggled to establish themselves in an environment dominated by discrete subjects.
In 2002, following the publication of the report of an independent advisory committee chaired by Professor Bernard Crick, Citizenship became a Foundation Subject of the National Curriculum in secondary schools, giving Citizenship statutory status for the first time. In contrast, primary schools were merely ‘encouraged‘ to teach citizenship as part of a wider programme with Personal, Social and Health Education (PSHE). Accordingly, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) published a joint non-statutory framework for the teaching of PSHE and Citizenship in primary schools.
The revised National Curriculum to be taught in primary and secondary schools from 2008 identifies three main purposes. These are to create:
- Successful learners who make progress and achieve
- Confident individuals who lead safe and healthy lives Responsible citizens who make a positive contribution to society.
The recognition that these purposes afford to the importance of Citizenship Education but do not see how they are to be achieved while Citizenship Education remains optional in the primary phase. Given that social development takes place throughout the primary years and that this period represents a crucial stage in the development of healthy attitudes towards the teachers and the community, and thus there has been the inception of Citizenship Education at the primary level of education.
In 2002, there had been a great change as Citizenship as a statutory subject was introduced in the National Curriculum. It is taught as part of the school curriculum to all pupils aged 11-16 years old in English.
The National Curriculum for citizenship in England contributes to the overall aims of the national curriculum that children should develop as successful learners, confident individuals and responsible citizens who make a positive contribution to society.
The Citizenship curriculum is based on key concepts (democracy, justice, rights and responsibilities, identities and diversity) that children need to understand and key processes and skills (critical thinking and enquiry, advocacy and representation, taking informed and responsible action) they need to develop. The National Curriculum for citizenship sets out teaching requirements that address a wide range of content including politics and government, the legal system, the media, multiculturalism, equal opportunities, human rights, and global education. Teachers use topical political and social issues to bring citizenship content to life and to help pupils develop key citizenship skills of research, discussion and debate, as well as to represent the views of others, think critically, evaluate and reflect. The Citizenship curriculum aims to develop student's ability to participate in communities and wider society as informed, critical and responsible citizens. The purpose of "active citizenship" is to teach students to work together and take practical action, using their Citizenship knowledge and understanding to contribute to a better society. For example, after learning about human rights, diversity and inequality, students might decide to set up a project to address racism in their school or local community.
The methods of teaching should be a democratic one, having the scientific enquiry, communicative approach, dialogue methods, laboratory and heuristic methods are to be practiced for developing a sense of citizenship in the global scenario.
Definition of effective citizenship:
Effective citizenship connects the intellectual power of the mind with effective action in the contemporary world. The concept of world citizenship is a vast one. It includes extensive knowledge of global issues and sophisticated powers for understanding these issues. World citizen has the knowledge of global forces, both physical and social, that affect the lives of every individual‘s understanding, the culture and cultural differences and can analyze the world issues from a variety of
perspectives, and generate new ideas about the world. In short, a world citizen must have a well developed set of cognitive abilities.
Secondly, world citizenship requires a well-developed sense of the self as a global self. This sense of self which includes a personal identity must transcend the local details of one‘s day-to-day existence. The concept of a global self is critical. Without the component of a global self, cognitive ability will not be sufficient to make one a world citizen.
Finally, world citizenship includes engagement with the contemporary world in an effective and ethical fashion. This third component is defined by the skill and motivation to turn knowledge and understanding into action.
These three major components of world citizenship complement each other, and all three are necessary features of citizenship.
EDUCATING WORLD CITIZEN, CURRICULUM FOR CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION
Components of effective citizens:
The necessary components of effective citizens are Cognitive Ability, Self Development and Identity, Action and pro-activity in the Contemporary World.
The cognitive abilities that are necessary for world citizenship include knowledge about the world and the intellectual skill to work with constructive knowledge. These abilities combine content, process and products. The ability to understand global forces that affect our lives. These forces are both physical and social. This understanding should include the historical context of the forces.
Multidisciplinary perspective is the ability to use different methods of understanding and taking advantage of the strengths of different disciplines. Most significant world issues cut across areas of human understanding. It is important to combine different disciplinary intellectual tools to address these issues.
The methods of teaching should be a democratic one. Scientific enquiry, communicative approach, dialogue methods, laboratory and heuristic methods are to be practiced for developing a sense of citizenship in the global scenario.
Discipline: It would be better for men to be deprived of education than to receive their education from their masters, for education, in that sense, is no better than the training of cattle that are broken to the yoke.
The proper discipline is self discipline, and education for such self control that is the value of freedom and authority should be inculcated in every institution. Martin Luther King has said,” We have guided missiles and misguided men. This must be changed for the better by infusion of morality in private and public life.”
Education and Role of Teacher:
Education in the largest sense, is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another.
Teachers in educational institutions direct the entire educational system and give emphasis on subjects like Literature, mathematics, science , history, geography, environmental studies, population education, socially useful productive work and so on considering the democratic set up of the nation. There is also education in fields for those who want specific vocational skills, such as those required to be a pilot. In addition there is an array of education possible at the informal level, such as in museums and libraries, with the Internet and in life experience. Many non- traditional education options are now available and continue to evolve.
LET’S SUM UP
The Education Commission felt ,we believe that India should strive to bring science and the values of the spirit together in harmony and thereby pave their way for the eventual emergence of a society which could cater to the needs of the whole man and not only to the particular fragment of his personality. A scientific outlook must become a part of the way of life and culture for educating world citizens. The whole gamut of education must enlighten the masses in true sense for developing the essence of global citizenship to imbibe International Understanding.
Anand, C.L, The teacher and education in emerging Indian Society, NCERT (New Delhi).
N.Jayaraman, Sociology of Education in India, Rawat publication J.C.Aggarwal, Education in the Emerging Indian society, SHIPRA, Aggarwal J.C., Recent Developments and Trends in Education, SHIPRA