## CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (3 MARKS)

Ans.1-Why 82°30E has been selected as the Standard Meridian of India?
Ans. A globe has 24 time zones, each of 15 longitudes. Local time in each zone at the middle longitude (divided by 7°30′) is taken as Standard Time. As 82°30'E is divisible by 7°30', a standard by all countries, India selected this odd value.

Q.2. Why is the difference between the durations of day and night hardly felt at Kanyakumari but not so in Kashmir?
Ans. (i) Places near the Equator experience almost equal duration of day and night as the Sun shines overhead throughout the year.
(ii)   Going   away   from   Equator   towards   the   Poles,   the   durations   of   day   and   night   go   on   differing.

Q.3.  Find out the number of Union Territories along the western and eastern coasts.
Ans. Union Territories on the western coast of India are four in number — Diu and Daman, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Mahe (Pondicherry) and Lakshadweep. Union Territories on the eastern coast of India are two Pondicherry and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Q.4.  Areawise which is the smallest and which is the largest state?
Ans.      Smallest State in India (areawise) — Goa              Largest State in India (areawise) — Rajasthan

Q.5.         Find out the States which do not have an international border or lie on the coast. Ans. Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand.

Q.6.         Classify the states into four groups each having common frontiers with (i) Pakistan (ii) China (iii) Myanmar and (iv) Bangladesh.
Ans. (i) States having common frontiers with Pakistan are Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat.
(ii)    States having common frontiers with China are Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.
(iii)  States having common frontiers with Myanmar are Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram.
(iv)  States having common frontiers with Bangladesh are West Bengal, Meghalaya, Assam and Tripura.

Q.7- The sun rises two hours earlier in Arunachal Pradesh as compared to Gujarat in the west but the watches show the same time. How does this happen?
Ans. The local time difference arises because the sunrise is earlier in the east than in the west. However, the watches show the same time because Indian Standard Time is reckoned from a single meridian 82o30′ that passes through Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh.

Q.8.         The central location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean is considered of great significance. Why?
Ans. The location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean has helped India in establishing close contacts with West Asia, Africa and Europe from the western coast and with South-east and East Asia from the eastern coast.

Q.9.         What is the longitudinal extent of India? State its two implications.
Ans. The mainland of India extends between longitudes 68°7′E and 97°25′E. The east-west extentis 2933 km in length. The longitudinal extension shows that India is located in the Eastern Hemisphere and places can be located with reference to longitudes.
On account of the 30° longitudinal extension (97°25′–68°7′ = 29°18′, approximately 30°) there is a time difference of 2 hours (30°×4 min = 120 mins or 2 hours) in local time between the eastern and western limits of India. However, a standard time (5 hours 30 min ahead of G.M.T.) is adopted according to the local time of the central meridian of the country, 82°30′E.

Q.10.     Describe briefly the geographic location of India in Asia. What is the significance of India’s geographic location?
Ans. The Indian landmass has a central location between the East and the West Asia. India is a southward extension of the Asian Continent. The trans-Indian Ocean routes which connect the countries of Europe in the west and the countries of East Asia provide a strategic central location to India. The Deccan Peninsula protrudes into the Indian Ocean, thus helping India to establish close contact with oil rich countries of West Asia as well as Africa and Europe from the western coast and the Southeast and East Asia from the eastern coast via sea and ocean routes and air routes.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (5 MARKS)

Q.1.         Which are the countries with which India shares land boundaries? Write a short note about India’s position among its neighbours.
Ans. India shares its land boundaries with Pakistan and Afghanistan in the northwest, China (Tibet), Nepal and Bhutan in the north and Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east. India stands apart from the rest of Asia with the Himalayas acting as a natural barrier to the north and northwest and the Purvanchals in the northeast. Thus, the land boundary of India is protected by mountain ranges, giving India a safer location with respect to its neighbours. India occupies the most eminent position within the Indian subcontinent and has strong geographical and historical links with its neighbours. India shares strong bilateral relationships with its neighbours socially, culturally and economically. Social and cultural exchange with our neighbours has strengthened our position on account of our rich cultural heritage. Economically, we have good trade relations with our neighbours. Politically also, we share good relations with most of our neighbours. The SAARC endeavours to maintain good relations among the neighbouring countries in South Asia.

Q.2.         Write a note on the location and size of India
Ans. India is a vast country. It is located in South Asia. From south to north India’s mainland extends between 8°4′N and 37°6′N latitudes. It is located in the Northern Hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer (23°30′N) passes roughly  through  the  middle  of  the  country.  From  west  to  east  India  extends  between  68°7′E  and  97°25′E

longitudes. It is located in the Eastern Hemisphere. To the southeast of India’s mainland lie the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and to the southwest lie the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea. The landmass of India covers an area of 3.28 million square km. From the point of view of size it is the seventh largest country of the world. It accounts for 2.4 per cent of the total geographical area of the world. It has an east-west extent of 2933 km from Arunachal Pradesh to Kachchh in Gujarat and a north-south extent of 3214 km from Kashmir to Kanniyakumari. India’s land boundary extends for about 15,200 km. It has a long coastline of 7516.6 km including Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands. With a population of over 1000 millions, India is the second most populous country of the world after China. The lofty ranges of the Himalayas and other mountains form a natural geographical boundary in the northwest, north and northeast. The southern part of the country is in form of a peninsula, tapering towards the Indian Ocean in the south. It is bounded by Arabian Sea in the southwest and Bay of Bengal in the southeast.

Q.3.         Write a note on the Indian Standard Time? Why is there a time difference of almost 2 hours from Arunachal Pradesh to Gujarat?
Ans. On account of the vast longitudinal extent of India there is a time lag of two hours in local time between its western and eastern limits. Hence, for the sake of convenience a standard time is adopted for the entire country. The central meridian of the country, 82°30′E longitude, has been selected as the Standard Meridian of India. It passes through Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh. The local time along this meridian is taken as the standard time of India, which is 82°30′ × 4 min = 330 minutes or 5 hr 30 min ahead of G.M.T. Because India is located to the east of Greenwich Meridian, the time is ahead of G.M.T. or Universal Time. India has a longitudinal extent of more than 29°, with the 68°7′E longitude bounding its western limit in Kachchh in Gujarat and 97°25′E bounding its eastern limit in Arunachal Pradesh (97°25′ – 68°7′ = 29°18′).
For each 1° longitude there is a time difference of 4 minutes. For 29° longitudes there will be a time difference of 4 × 29° = 116 minutes or 1 hr 56 minutes, approximately 2 hours. Hence, there is a time difference of almost two hours in the local time of Arunachal Pradesh and Gujarat with the sun rising almost two hours earlier in Arunachal Pradesh compared to Gujarat.

Q.4.         How many states form the Union of India? Write a note on the smallest and the largest Indian states.
Ans. For administrative convenience, our vast country has been divided into political units – the states and the Union Territories. The administrative divisions have been made mainly on the basis of language. At present India is a union of 28 states and 7 Union Territories including the National Capital Territory of Delhi. Delhi is the national capital of India. From the point of view of size, Rajasthan is the largest states while Goa is the smallest state. Rajasthan, the largest state, has an area of about 342 thousand sq. km. It lies to the west of India. It shares its boundary with our neighbouring country of Pakistan in the west. In its east lie the states of Uttar Pradesh and parts of Madhya Pradesh. To its north lie Punjab and Haryana. Gujarat and parts of Madhya Pradesh lie to its south. The Thar Desert or the Indian Desert is located in Rajasthan. Jaipur is the capital of Rajasthan. Goa, the smallest states of India, has an area of only 3,702 sq. km. (appr. 3.7 thousand sq. km.). The Arabian Sea lies to the west of Goa. To its north lies Maharashtra and to its east and south lies Karnataka. Panaji is the capital of Goa.

Q.5. What are the two groups of Indian islands? Write a note on each, describing its geographic position with relation to India.
Ans. The two group of islands which are part of the Indian Union are the Andaman & Nicobar Islands and the Lakshadweep Islands.The Andaman and Nicobar Islands lie to the southeast of Indian mainland in the Bay of Bengal.
The Lakshadweep Islands lie in the Arabian Sea to the southwest of India’s mainland, close to the Malabar coast of Kerala.  The Andaman and Nicobars are formed of the Great Andamans and the Little Andamans in the north and Nicobar Islands in the south. They are groups of numerous big and small islands. The southernmost point of the Indian Union is located in one of these Islands. These islands are of great strategic importance to India. They lie close to the equator and have equatorial climate. They lie along the trans-Indian Ocean route and close to the south and southeast Asia. Port Blair is the official headquarters of Andaman and Nicobar. The Lakshadweep Islands are a group of small coral islands lying close to the southern section of the west coast of India. In 1973 the Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindive Islands were renamed as Lashadweep. It covers a small area of 32 sq. km. Kavaratti island is the administrative headquarters of Lakshadweep. Both the group of islands are rich in flora and fauna and natural beauty, enhancing India’s geographical entity.

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