CBSE NCERT Class IX (9th) | Social Studies | History
CHAPTER 3: NAZISM AND THE RISE OF HITLER
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS]:
Q.1. Describe what happened to Germany after its defeat in the First World War.
2-The Peace Treaty at Versailles with the Allies was a harsh and humiliating treaty. Germany lost its overseas colonies, a tenth of its population, 13 per cent of its territories, 75 per cent of its iron and 26 per cent of its coal to France, Poland, Denmark and Lithuania.
3-The Allied Powers demilitarised Germany to weaken its power. Germany was forced to pay compensation amounting to 6 billion.
Q.2.Give reasons for Hitler’s rise to power.
Ans (i) The economic crisis: Germany had to face a great economic crisis after the First WorldWar. Many soldiers were no longer in service, so they became unemployed. Trade and commerce was ruined. Germany was in the grip of unemployment and starvation.
(ii) Exploiting the mentality of the Germans: The Germans had no faith in democracy. It was against their culture and tradition. They at once gave their support to a strong man like Hitler who could transfer their dreams into reality.
(iii) Making the best use of his personal qualities: Hitler was a powerful orator, an able Organiser.
Q.3. Explain the following terms:
(a) A Racial State (b) Propaganda (c) Jungvolk
Ans (a) Racial State: Once in power, the Nazis quickly began to implement their dream of creating an exclusive racial community of pure Germans by physically eliminating all those who were seen as ‘undesirable’ in the extended empire.Nazis only wanted a society of ‘pure and healthy Nordic Aryans’. They alone were considered ‘desirable’.
(b) Propaganda: The Nazi regime used language and media with care and often to great effect. They used films, pictures, radio, posters, etc. to spread hatred for the Jews.
Propaganda is a specific type of message directly aimed at influencing the opinion of people through the use of posters, films, speeches etc.
(c) Jungvolk: These were Nazi youth groups for children below 14 years of age. Youth organisations were made responsible for educating German youth in ‘the spirit of National Socialism’. Ten-year-olds had to enter Jungvolk. At 14, all boys had to join the Nazi youth organisation.
Q.4. Explain the role of women in Hitler’s Germany.
Ans. 1. According to Hitler’s ideology, women were radically different from men.
2. The democratic idea of equal rights for men and women was wrong and would destroy society.
3. While boys were taught to be aggressive, masculine and steel-hearted, girls were told that they had to become good mothers and rear pure blooded Aryan children.
Q.5. Explain the main views of Hitler as expressed in his book 'Mein Kampf'.
Ans. Adolf Hitler wrote a book entitled ‘Mein Kampf’. Its literal meaning is ‘My Struggle’. This book expresses some of the most monstrous ideas of the Nazi movement.
1. He glorified the use of force and brutalities and the rule by a great leader and ridiculed internationalism, peace and democracy.
2. These principles were accepted by all followers of Hitler.
3. Throughout Germany an atmosphere of terror was created. Hitler glorified violent nationalism and extolled war.
4. He wrote this book at the age of 35, it is an autobiographical book; in this book Hitler has poured out his hatred for democracy,
5. He also revealed his bitterness over German surrender in World War I.
Q.6. Why is Nazism considered a calamity not only for Germany but for the entire Europe?
Ans. Nazi ideology specified that there was racial hierarchy and no equality between people.
1. The blond, blue-eyed Nordic German Aryans were at the top, while the Jews were located somewhere on the lowest rung of the ladder.
2. The number of people killed by Nazi Germany was 6 million Jews, 200,000 Gypsies, 1 million Polish civilians, 70,000 Germans.
3. Nazism glorified the use of force and brutality. It ridiculed internationalism, peace and democracy.
4. Nazi Germany became the most dreaded criminal state. Hitler chose war as the way out of approaching the economic crisis.
5. Germany invaded Poland. This started a war with France and England in September 1940.
Q.7.What happened in schools under Nazism?
Ans. 1. All schools were cleansed and purified.
2. This meant that teachers who were Jews or seen as politically unreliable were dismissed.
3. Children were segregated — Germans and Jews could not sit together or play together.
4. Later on the undesirable children — the Jews, the physically handicapped, gypsies — were thrown out of schools
Q.8. ‘In my state the mother is the most important citizen.’ Discuss this statement made by Hitler.
Ans. 1. Though Hitler said that in my state the mother is the most important citizen, it was not true.
2. All mothers were not treated equally. Women who bore racially desirable children were awarded, while those who bore racially undesirable children were punished.
3. Women who bore ‘desirable’ children were entitled to privileges and rewards. They were given special treatment in hospitals and concessions in shops and on theatre tickets and railway fares.
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [5 MARKS]:
Q.1. Give reasons why the Weimar Republic failed to solve the problems of Germany.
Ans. 1. The birth of the Weimar Republic coincided with the uprising of the Spartacus League on the pattern of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.
2. The Democrats, Socialists and Catholics opposed it. They met in Weimar to give shape to a democratic republic.
3. The republic was not received well by its own people largely because of the terms it was forced to accept after Germany’s defeat at the end of the First World War.
4. Many Germans held the new Weimar Republic responsible for not only the defeat in the war but the disgrace at Versailles. This republic was finally crippled by being forced to pay compensation. Soon after the economic crisis hit Germany in 1923, the value of German mark fell considerably.
5. The Weimar Republic had to face hyperinflation. Then came the Wall Street exchange crash in 1929.
Q.2. Why was Nazism considered to be a negation of both democracy and socialism?
Ans. 1. After assuming power on 30th January 1933, Hitler set out to dismantle the structure of democratic rule.
2. The Fire decree of 28th February 1933 indefinitely suspended civic rights like freedom of speech, press and assembly that had been guaranteed by the Weimar constitution.
3. The repression of the Jews and Communists was severe. On 3rd March 1933, the famousEnabling Act was passed. This Act established dictatorship in Germany.
1. This Act gave Adolf Hitler all political and administrative power to side line the German parliament.
2. All political parties of Germany and trade unions were banned except for the Nazi party and its affiliates. The state established complete control over the economy, media, army and judiciary.
3. Special surveillance and security forces besides the existing regular police force, the Gestapo, the SD plus the extra-constitutional powers of these newly constructed forces gave the Nazi state its reputation of being the most dreaded criminal state.
Q.3. Describe Hitler’s rise to power with reference to his
(a) Policy towards the youth (b) His personal qualities (c) Development of the art of propaganda
Ans. (a) Policy towards youth: Hitler was fanatically interested in the youth of the country. He felt that a strong Nazi society could be established only by teaching children the Nazi ideology. This required a control over the child, both inside and outside school.Good German children were subjected to a process of Nazi schooling, a prolonged period of ideological training. Youth organisations were made responsible for educating the German youth in ‘the spirit of National Socialism’. Ten-year-olds had to enter Jungvolk. At 14, all boys had to join the Nazi youth organisation
(b)His personal qualities: Hitler was a tireless worker and an able organiser. He had a charming personality. He was an effective orator. Bitterly anti-Communist, he promised to save the country from the onslaught of communism. He won over the nationalists by promising to vindicate national honour by repudiating the Treaty of Versailles
(c)Development of the art of propaganda:
The Nazi regime used language and media with care, and often to great effect. The terms they coined to describe their various practices were not only deceptive, they were chilling. Nazis never used words ‘‘kill’’ or ‘‘murder’’ in their official communications.
Q.4. Describe in detail Hitler’s treatment of the Jews Explain Nazi ideologies regarding the Jews.
Ans. 1. Once in power, the Nazis quickly began to implement their dream of creating an exclusive racial community of pure Germans by physically eliminating all those who were seen as‘‘undesirable’’ in the extended empire were mentally or physically unfit Germans, Gypsies, blacks, Russians, Poles.
2. But Jews remained the worst sufferers in Nazi Germany. They were stereotyped as ‘killers ofChrist and usurers'. Until medieval times, Jews were barred from owning land.
3. They survived mainly through trade and moneylending. They lived in separately marked areas called ‘ghettos’.
4. They were often persecuted through periodic organised violence and expulsion from land.
5. All this had a precursor in the traditional Christian hostility towards Jews for being the killers of Christ.However, Hitler’s hatred of the Jews was based on pseudo-scientific theories of race, which held that conversion was no solution to ‘the Jewish problem’. It could be solved only through their total elimination.
Q.5.What were the effects of peace treaty on Germany after the First World War
Ans. 1. The defeat of Germany in World War I made Hitler angry. It horrified him. The Treaty of Versailles made him furious.
3. He joined the German Workers Party and renamed it National Socialist German Workers Party. This later came to be known as the Nazi Party.
4. Hitler promised to build a strong nation, undo the injustice of the Versailles Treaty and restore the dignity of the German people. After First World War, Germany was compelled to sign this treaty under the threat of war.
5. In September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. In1940, a Tripartite Pact was signed between Germany, Italy and Japan, strengthening Hitler’s claim to international power. Puppet regimes, supportive of Nazi Germany, were installed in a large part of Europe. Hitler then attacked the Soviet Union.
Q.1. Describe the main provisions of Treaty of Versailles.
Ans. The Treaty of Versailles was harsh and humiliating peace for the Germans.
(i) Germany lost all its overseas colonies, a tenth of its population.
(ii) 13 per cent of its territories, 75 per cent of its iron and 26 per cent of its coal to France.
(iii) Germany was demilitarised to weaken its power.
(iv)The war guilt clause held Germany responsible for war and damages the Allied countries suffered. It was forced to pay a compensation amounting to £6 billion.
(v) The Allied forces occupied the resource-rich Rhineland till the 1920s.
Q.2. How did the ordinary Germans react to Nazism
Ans.1- Many saw the world through Nazi eyes and spoke their mind in Nazi language.
2-They felt hatred and anger even when someone they thought who looked like a Jew.
3-They reported against Suspected Jews and marked their houses.
4-They believed Nazism would make them prosperous and happy. The large numbers of Germans were passive onlookers, too scared to act, to differ or protest.
Q.3. From whom did Hitler borrow his racist ideology? Explain.
Ans. 1-Hitler borrowed his racist ideology from thinkers like Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer.
2-Darwin was a natural scientist who tried to explain the creation of plants and animals through the concept of evolution and natural selection.
3-Herbert Spencer later on added the idea of survival of the fittest. According to this idea, only those species survived on earth that could adapt themselves to changing climatic conditions.
4-Darwin never advocated human intervention in what he thought was a purely natural process of selection.