# Population (NCERT Solution)

## Chapter  : POPULATION

Q.1 What is environmental resistance of population growth?
Ans       Environmental resistance of population growth are :
i)       Scarcity of food and shelter;
ii)      Natural calamities like drought, floods and;
iii)     Biotic factors like pathogens, parasites, predators is known as environmental resistance.

Q.2  Distinguish between: Total population and Average density of population. Ans

 Total Population Average Density of Population i)  It  is  the  number  of  people  actually existing in the area. i) It is the number of people in a unit area after the distribution of the total population uniformly. ii) Its unit of measurement is number of people. ii) Its unit of measurement is number of people per unit area. iii) Its value depends on number of people only. iii) Its value depends on both the number of people as well as the total area.

Q.3 What is meant by the natural growth rate of population? What does the change in population of a territory indicate at?
Ans       The population increased in a particular region between two points of times termed as natural growth rate of population. It is calculated by Birth-Deaths.
The change in population of a territory is an important indicator of:
Economic development Social upliftment            Historical background     Cultural background

Q.4 Mention any three disadvantages of large population? Ans       Disadvantages of large population are:
(i)     Per Capita Income goes down as the national income is distributed among large number of people.
(ii)   Increasing population results in increased pressure on land and it adversely affects productivity in agriculture.
(iii)  Poverty and unemployment conditions increase day by day.

Q.5 What are the three special features of human resources of India? Ans       Three special features of human resources of Indiaare:
(i)          The human resource of India is very large.
(iii)Its distribution is quite uneven.
(iv) It has been increasing very rapidly.

Q.6 What are the three major questions about the population? Ans       Three major questions about the population:
1.Population size and distribution: How many people are there and where are they located?
2.    Population growth and processes of population change: How has the population grown are changed with time?
3.   Characteristics or qualities of the population: What are their ages, sex compositions, literacy levels, occupational structures and health conditions?

Q.7 Population is the pivotal element in social studies. Support your answer giving three points. Ans       Population is the pivotal element in social studies. We can say this because:
1.It is the point of reference from which all other elements are observed and from which they derive significance and meaning.
2.‘Resources’, ‘calamities’ and ‘disasters’ are all meaningful only in relation to human beings.

3.Their numbers, distribution, growth and characteristics or qualities provide the basic background for understanding and appreciating all aspects of the environment.

Q.8 What is population density? How can you say that population density is not same throughout India? Give any two examples.
Ans       Population density is calculated as the number of persons per unit area. Population density is not the same throughout India.
1.The population density of India varies from 904 persons per sq km in West Bengal to only 13 persons per sq km in Arunachal Pradesh.
2.The Northern Plains and Kerala in the south have high to very high population densities because of the flat plains with fertile soils and abundant rainfall.

Q.9 What is population growth?What are the two key factors for declining growth rate of population since 1981?
Ans       Population growth refers to the natural increase in the population plus any net gain from migration.
Two key factors for declining growth rate of population since 1981 are:
(i)Improved medical facilities       (ii)Rise in literacy levels

Q.10    What are Primary, Secondary and Tertiary activities?
Ans       Primary activities are related to extraction of raw materials from nature. It includes agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying etc.
Secondary activities include industries that transform raw materials into finished goods. It includes manufacturing industry, building and construction work etc.
Tertiary activities include the services like transportation, communication, commerce, administration, etc.

Q.1       Distinguish between: Growth rate and Birth rate. Ans
 Growth Rate Birth Rate i) It is the rate at which the population grows in a region during a certain period of time. i) It is the number of the people born in a region during a certain period of time. ii) Its value is calculated as the difference between the birth rate and the death rate during a certain period. ii) Its value is directly received from births and deaths registration offices in the region. iii) The current high population growth rate is due to the large size of the population in the reproductive age-group, higher fertility due to unmet need for contraception; and high wanted fertility due to prevailing high IMR. iii)It was 22.50 in 2009, according to a World Bank report, published in 2010. The birth rate declined from 26.8 in 1998 to 22.8 in 2008.

Q.2 Write a short note on the population distribution in India.
Ans  India is a vast country having diverse types of relief patterns, soils and climatic conditions. Owing to this fact, it is usual to have uneven distribution of population.
1.Climate: Areas having moderate climate have more population than the areas having extreme climatic conditions.
2.Types of Soil: India’s northern plains are made up of alluvial soil which are very fertile and are densely populated. On the other hand hilly areas and deserts are sparsely populated.
3.Opportunity for jobs: Urban areas are thickly populated because of the good opportunity of job.
4.    Religious and historical places: Like Allahabad, Varanasi, Rameshwaram, Agra, etc. are also thickly populated areas.

Q.3 Give a brief account of economic advantages and disadvantages of large population.
Ans Advantages of large population: - A large population makes positive contribution to economic growth because of availability of larger manpowerfor productive activities in the fields of secondary, tertiary and quaternary sectors.
i)       Per capita income goes down as the national income is distributed among larger number of people.
ii)      Consumption trend gets upward, reducing the size of savings.
iii)    Increasing population results in increased pressure on land and it adversely affects productivity in agriculture.
iv)    Poverty and unemployment conditions increase day by day.

Q.4 Describe the basic factors affecting the population of India. Ans       The basic factors affecting the population of India are:
i)       Birth rate – It is the number of births per 1000 individuals of a country’s population per annum. It increases both population size and population density.
ii)      Death rate – It is expressed as the number of deaths per 1000 individuals of a nation’s population per
year. It decreases both population size and density.
iii)    Immigration – It is the entry of more individuals into a local population of a species in a specific area from outside due to more favourable conditions in that area.
iv)    Emigration – It is the departure of some individuals from a local population to another area due to unfavourable conditions in the former. It decreases population size of that area.

Q.5 What is the concept of value education adopted under national population policy, 2000 in India? Mention its components.
Ans Concept of value education is primarily aimed to inculcate moral, environmental, educational, democratic and literary values in the individuals. It is for the improvement of individuals themselves as well as of society, nation and universe as a whole.
Components of Value Education are:

 i) Moral education, ii) Environmental education, iii) Population education, iv) Human rights and duties, v) Health education, vi) Indian cultural education, vii) Physical education, viii) Yoga education and ix) History of Indian freedom movement.