CBSE NCERT Class X (10th) | Social Studies | Geography
Chapter – 1 Resources and Development
NCERT Chapter Solution
Multiple choice questions
(i) Which one of the following type of resource is iron
(ii) Under which of the following type of resource can
tidal energy be put?
(iii) Which one of the following is the main cause of
land degradation in Punjab?
(a) Intensive cultivation
(c) Over irrigation
(iv) In which one of the following states is terrace
(b) Plains of Uttar Pradesh
(v) In which of the following states is black soil found?
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
(i) (d) Non-renewable
(ii) (a) Replenishable
(iii) (c) Over irrigation
(iv) (d) Uttarakhand
(v) (b) Gujarat
Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Name three states having black soil and the crop
which is mainly grown in it.
(ii) What type of soil is found in the river deltas of
the eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.
(iii) What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in
the hilly areas?
(iv) What are the biotic and abiotic resources? Give some
(i) Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh
Black soil is ideal for growing cotton.
(ii) Alluvial soil
Alluvial soils are very fertile. They are ideal for
growing sugarcane, wheat and paddy. As it has morekankar nodules,
old alluvial is less fertile than new alluvial.
(iii) In the hilly areas, soil erosion can be controlled by
ploughing across contour lines, making use of terrace farming techniques and
using strips of grass to check erosion by wind and water.
(iv) Biotic resources are composed of living things, and are
derived from the biosphere, e.g., human beings, fisheries and livestock.
Abiotic resources are composed of non-living things,
e.g., metals and rocks.
Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Explain land use pattern in India and why has the
land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?
(ii) How have technical and economic development led to
more consumption of resources?
(i) Land resources in India are primarily divided into
agricultural land, forest land, land meant for pasture and grazing, and waste
land. Waste land includes rocky, arid and desert areas, and land used for other
non-agricultural purposes such as housing, roads and industry. According to
the recent data, about 54% of the total land area is cultivable or
fallow, 22.5% is covered by forests, and 3.45% is used for grazing.
The rest is waste land, with traces of miscellaneous cultivation.
The improper use of forest land has degraded the available
land area, and has made conservation of forests difficult. Human activities
such as deforestation, mining and quarrying have contributed to the slow growth
rate of forests. Thus, land under forest has increased by only about 4% since
(ii) Technical and economic development have led to
more consumption of resources on account of various factors. In colonial times,
imperial powers would use their technological and economic superiority to
establish control over other countries and thereby gain access to the latter's
resources. Now, one country's resources became accessible to the citizens of
its colonial ruler too, leading to increased consumption. Also, on account of
technical and economic progress, populations are increasing due to low
mortality at all ages. With the development of medicine and health care, fewer
people die due to accidents, diseases, in childbirth etc. This too has
contributed to higher consumption of resources.