Therefore, the temperature coefficient of silver is 0.0039°C - 1.
Aheating element using nichrome connected to a 230 V supply draws an initial current of 3.2 A which settles after a few seconds toa steady value of 2.8 A. What is the steady temperature of the heating element if the room temperature is 27.0 °C? Temperature coefficient of resistance of nichrome averaged over the temperature range involved is 1.70 x 10-4 °C -1.
Supply voltage, V = 230 V
Initial current drawn, I1 = 3.2 A
Initial resistance = R1, which is given by the relation,
Steady state value of the current, I2 = 2.8 A
Resistance at the steady state = R2, which is given as
Temperature co-efficient of nichrome, α = 1.70 × 10 - 4 °C - 1
Initial temperature of nichrome, T1= 27.0°C
Study state temperature reached by nichrome = T2
T2 can be obtained by the relation for α,
Therefore, the steady temperature of the heating element is 867.5°C
Determine the current in each branch of the network shown in fig 3.30:
Current flowing through various branches of the circuit is represented in the given figure.
I1 = Current flowing through the outer circuit
I2 = Current flowing through branch AB
I3 = Current flowing through branch AD
I2 - I4 = Current flowing through branch BC
I3 + I4 = Current flowing through branch CD
I4 = Current flowing through branch BD
For the closed circuit ABDA, potential is zero i.e.,
10I2 + 5I4 - 5I3 = 0
2I2 + I4 - I3 = 0
I3 = 2I2 + I4 … (1)
For the closed circuit BCDB, potential is zero i.e.,
5(I2 - I4) - 10(I3 +I4) - 5I4 = 0
5I2 + 5I4 - 10I3 - 10I4 - 5I4 = 0
5I2 - 10I3 - 20I4 = 0
I2 = 2I3 + 4I4 … (2)
For the closed circuit ABCFEA, potential is zero i.e.,
- 10 + 10 (I1) + 10(I2) + 5(I2 - I4) = 0
10 = 15I2 + 10I1 - 5I4
3I2 + 2I1 - I4 = 2 … (3)
From equations (1) and (2), we obtain
I3 = 2(2I3 + 4I4) + I4
I3 = 4I3 + 8I4 + I4
- 3I3 = 9I4
- 3I4 = + I3 … (4)
Putting equation (4) in equation (1), we obtain
I3 = 2I2 + I4
- 4I4 = 2I2
I2 = - 2I4 … (5)
It is evident from the given figure that,
I1 = I3 + I2 … (6)
Putting equation (6) in equation (1), we obtain
3I2 +2(I3 + I2) - I4 = 2
5I2 + 2I3 - I4 = 2 … (7)
Putting equations (4) and (5) in equation (7), we obtain
R is connected to the storage battery in series. Hence, it can be written as
V1 = V - E
V1 = 120 - 8 = 112 V
Current flowing in the circuit = I, which is given by the relation,
Voltage across resistor R given by the product, IR = 7 × 15.5 = 108.5 V
DC supply voltage = Terminal voltage of battery + Voltage drop across R
Terminal voltage of battery = 120 - 108.5 = 11.5 V
A series resistor in a charging circuit limits the current drawn from the external source. The current will be extremely high in its absence. This is very dangerous.
In a potentiometer arrangement, a cell of emf 1.25 V gives a balance point at 35.0 cm length of the wire. If the cell is replaced by another cell and the balance point shifts to 63.0 cm, what is the emf of the second cell?
Emf of the cell, E1 = 1.25 V
Balance point of the potentiometer, l1= 35 cm
The cell is replaced by another cell of emf E2.
New balance point of the potentiometer, l2 = 63 cm
Therefore, emf of the second cell is 2.25V.
The number density of free electrons in a copper conductor estimated in Example 3.1 is 8.5 x 1028 m-3. How long does an electron take to drift from one end of a wire 3.0 m long to its other end? The area of cross-section of the wire is 2.0 x 10-6 m2 and it is carrying a current of 3.0 A.
Number density of free electrons in a copper conductor, n = 8.5 × 1028 m - 3 Length of the copper wire, l = 3.0 m
Area of cross-section of the wire, A = 2.0 × 10 - 6 m2
Current carried by the wire, I = 3.0 A, which is given by the relation,
I = nAeVd
e = Electric charge = 1.6 × 10 - 19 C
Vd = Drift velocity
Therefore, the time taken by an electron to drift from one end of the wire to the other is 2.7 × 104 s.
The earth's surface has a negative surface charge density of 10-9 C m-2. The potential difference of 400 kV between the top of the atmosphere and the surface results (due to the low conductivity of the lower atmosphere) in a current of only 1800 A over the entire globe. If there were no mechanism of sustaining atmospheric electric field, how much time (roughly) would be required to neutralise the earth's surface? (This never happens in practice because there is a mechanism to replenish electric charges, namely the continual thunderstorms and lightning in different parts of the globe). (Radius of earth = 6.37 x 106 m.)
Surface charge density of the earth, ÃÆ’ = 10 - 9 C m - 2
Current over the entire globe, I = 1800 A
Radius of the earth, r = 6.37 × 106 m
Surface area of the earth,
A = 4πr2
= 4π × (6.37 × 106)2
= 5.09 × 1014 m2
Charge on the earth surface,
q = ÃÆ’ × A
= 10 - 9 × 5.09 × 1014
= 5.09 × 105 C
Time taken to neutralize the earth's surface = t
Therefore, the time taken to neutralize the earth's surface is 282.77 s.
(a) A steady current flows in a metallic conductor of non-uniform cross- section. Which of these quantities is constant along the conductor: current, current density, electric field, drift speed?
(b) Is Ohm's law universally applicable for all conducting elements?
If not, give examples of elements which do not obey Ohm's law.
(c) A low voltage supply from which one needs high currents must have very low internal resistance. Why?
(d) A high tension (HT) supply of, say, 6 kV must have a very large internal resistance. Why?
(a) When a steady current flows in a metallic conductor of non-uniform cross-section, the current flowing through the conductor is constant. Current density, electric field, and drift speed are inversely proportional to the area of cross-section. Therefore, they are not constant.
(b) No, Ohm's law is not universally applicable for all conducting elements. Vacuum diode semi-conductor is a non-ohmic conductor. Ohm's law is not valid for it.
(c) According to Ohm's law, the relation for the potential is V = IR
Voltage (V) is directly proportional to current (I).
R is the internal resistance of the source.
If V is low, then R must be very low, so that high current can be drawn from the source.
(d) In order to prohibit the current from exceeding the safety limit, a high tension supply must have a very large internal resistance. If the internal resistance is not large, then the current drawn can exceed the safety limits in case of a short circuit.
Choose the correct alternative:
(a) Alloys of metals usually have (greater/less) resistivity than that of their constituent metals.
(b) Alloys usually have much (lower/higher) temperature coefficients of resistance than pure metals.
(c) The resistivity of the alloy manganin is nearly independent of/increases rapidly with increase of temperature.
(d) The resistivity of a typical insulator (e.g., amber) is greater than that of a metal by a factor of the order of (1022/103).
(a) Alloys of metals usually have greater resistivity than that of their constituent metals.
(b) Alloys usually have lower temperature coefficients of resistance than pure metals.
(c) The resistivity of the alloy, manganin, is nearly independent of increase of temperature.
(d) The resistivity of a typical insulator is greater than that of a metal by a factor of the order of 1022.
(a) Given n resistors each of resistance R, how will you combine them to get the (i) maximum (ii) minimum effective resistance? What is the ratio of the maximum to minimum resistance?
(c) The balance point is not affected by the presence of high resistance.
(d) The point is not affected by the internal resistance of the driver cell.
(e) The method would not work if the driver cell of the potentiometer had an emf of 1.0 V instead of 2.0 V. This is because if the emf of the driver cell of the potentiometer is less than the emf of the other cell, then there would be no balance point on the wire.
(f) The circuit would not work well for determining an extremely small emf. As the circuit would be unstable, the balance point would be close to end A. Hence, there would be a large percentage of error.
The given circuit can be modified if a series resistance is connected with the wire AB. The potential drop across AB is slightly greater than the emf measured. The percentage error would be small.
If we fail to find a balance point with the given cell of emf, ÃŽÂµ, then the potential drop across Rand X must be reduced by putting a resistance in series with it. Only if the potential drop across R orX is smaller than the potential drop across the potentiometer wire AB, a balance point is obtained.