CBSE NCERT Class XI (11th) | Political Science | 

Ncert Solutions of Political Science Political Theory for Chapter 9 : Peace


Exercise : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 142
Q1 :  
Do you think that a change towards a peaceful world, needs a change in the way people think? Can mind promote peace and is it enough to focus only on the human mind?
Answer :
Any answer supported with argument or explanation would solve the purpose. It is strongly recommended that you prepare the solution on your own. However, a sample solution has been provided for your reference:
A change towards a peaceful world needs a change in the way people think for most conflicts arise in the minds of people. However, the mind by itself is insufficient to promote peace as the cause for violence also lies in the social structures. Thus, the creation of a peaceful society requires the elimination of structural violence.

Q2 :  
A State must protect the lives and rights of its citizens. However, at times its own actions are a source of violence against some of its citizens. Comment with the help of some examples

Answer :
It is true that at times government's own actions are a source of violence against some of its citizens.
  • The Armed Forces Special Power Act, 1958 in Jammu and Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura has been a source of violence against the citizens of these states.
  • The Act has resulted in large-scale violation of the rights of citizens under Articles 14, 19, 21, 22, and 25 of the Constitution.
  • The Act allows any officer of armed forces to arrest or shoot the person, use of force and to search any premise on the basis of suspicion.
  • The act also bestows legal immunity to the officials protecting them from prosecution.
  • Another example of state violence on civilians is related to land acquisition.
  • In the name of development, the state forcefully encroached upon the land of people in Nandigram and Singur in 2007.
  • When the civilians protested they had to face brutalities of police.

Q3 :  
Peace can be best realised when there is freedom, equality and justice. Do you agree?

Answer :
Any answer supported with argument or explanation would solve the purpose. It is strongly recommended that you prepare the solution on your own. However, a sample solution has been provided for your reference:
  • It is correct that peace can best be realised in the presence of freedom, equality and justice. Freedom in the society allows people to express themselves freely, while equality and justice help in removing the grounds for conflict.
  • Every person and group will be able to fulfil their basic needs in societies where equality prevails.
  • Justice ensures the prevention of oppression of individuals and groups based on class, gender, etc.
  • Thus, freedom for all, along with equality and justice addressing the aspirations of all individuals and groups help in removing insecurities that breed resentment among groups and cause conflicts.

Q4 :  
Use of violence does not achieve just ends in the long run. What do you think about this statement?

Answer :
  • Use of violence does not achieve just ends in the long run as violence tends to become out of control and causes a trail of death and destruction.
  • Violence involved in forcefully removing oppressors, liberation struggle and self-defence is often justified.
  • However, the removal of oppressors by the oppressed class through violent struggle leads to another cycle of violence fuelled by a feeling for revenge.
  • According to Mahatma Gandhi when violence is done for good, the good is temporary and the evil it does is permanent as violence breeds hatred and resentment and divides people instead of uniting them.

Q5 :  
Differentiate between the major approaches, discussed in the chapter, to the establishment of peace in the world.

Answer :
There are three major approaches for the establishment of peace in the world.
  1. The first approach favours sovereignty and deals with fair competition between the states and the maintenance of a balance of power to contain conflict. This approach upholds the sovereignty of states as paramount and competition among them as a fact in order to promote peace.
  2. The second approach deals with economic integration and interdependence that leads to political unification. Economic and social cooperation between states would lead to peace by promoting international understanding.
  3. The third approach visualises the state as a transitory system and the emergence of a global community surpassing the state system to maintain world peace. The rise of people's movements and multinational corporations is a step in this direction. The process of globalisation has contributed to this by reducing the influence of state and diluting the concept of sovereignty.

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