<< NATIONAL POLICY OF EDUCATION 1986,1992 (Part 2)
Chapter XVI. Adult Education: The NPE and POA envisaged that adult education would be a means for reducing economic, social and gender disparities.
The whole nation had pledged itself, through the National Literacy Mission, to the eradication of illiteracy, particularly in the age group of 15-35 through various means, with special emphasis on total literacy campaigns. The Central and State Governments, political parties and their mass organisations, the mass media and educational institutions, teachers, students, youth, voluntary agencies, social activist groups, and employers, must reinforce their commitment to mass literacy campaigns, which include literacy and functional knowledge and skills, and awareness among learners about the socio-economic reality and the possibility to change it.
The National Literacy Mission should be geared to the national goals such as alleviation of poverty, national integration, environmental conservation, observance of the small family norm, promotion of women’s equality, universalisation of primary education, basic health-care, etc. It should also facilitate energisation of the cultural creativity of the people and their active participation in development processes.
Chapter XVII. Content and Process of School Education: Regarding the content and process of school education, NPE and POA made the followings points:
I. Access to education of a comparable quality for all irrespective of caste, creed, location or sex.
II. Introduction to the norms of minimum levels of learning for different stages and provision of threshold facilities so that learning becomes a more enjoyable experience even for the slow learners.
III. Articulation of a national system of education with a common structure, national curricular framework which contains common core.
IV. Examination reforms and introduction of evaluation as an ongoing process in schools for the improvement of teaching and learning.
V. Development of culture specific curricular and instructional material for the tribal people and educationally deprived minority groups keeping in view their rich cultural identity.
VI. Overhauling of the system of teacher education and strengthening that of the technical and resource support structures, including the establishment of District Institutes of Education and Training.
VII. Decentralization of educational administration, creation of a spirit of autonomy for educational institutions with greater role assigned to the institutional heads and development of professionalism among teachers.
VIII. Promotion of non-governmental and voluntary efforts and people’s participation for giving impetus to innovative ideas and practices and mobilization of resources.
Chapter XVIII. Evaluation Process and Examination Reforms: The Policy visualized integration of the assessment of performance with the process of learning and teaching, and utilizing the process of evaluation to bring about qualitative change in education. In order to ensure the student’s performance, the assessment methods must be valid and reliable. The following short term measures had been proposed by the NPE and POA;
I. Public examinations will continue to be held only at the levels of classes X and XII,
II. Decentralization of the operation involved in the conduct of examinations to make the system work more effectively.
III. School boards in certain States have set up a number of sub centres to decentralize the conduct of examinations. Adoption of similar measures by other States will be pursued.
IV. At the university level continuous institutional evaluation will be introduced at the post graduate level, to begin with, in unitary universities, deemed universities and autonomous colleges.
V. Students’ performance will be indicated through letter grades, and assessment of overall performance will be on the basis of cumulative grade point average.
VI. Modifications in the qualifying recruitments for admission in the universities and colleges will be examined to accelerate the process of change in the level of examinations.
Chapter XIX. Youth and Sports: The NPE and POA stressed the following formulation (i) integration of sports and physical education in the learning process and evaluation of performance and (ii) involvement of youth in national and social development and sports and games etc. particularly, through educational institutions at the level of higher learning.
Chapter XX. Language Development: The NPE and POA elaborately discussed about the concept of language development and emphasized the adoption of regional languages as the media of instruction at the university stage. Regarding language development, the NPE and POA discussed and proposed many efforts and initiatives such as implementation of
Chapter XXI. Cultural development: While the formulating the national policy, the basic emphasis was given to interlinking education with culture. By interlinking education and culture, the stress was given in the development of child’s personality, particularly in terms of helping the child to discover his inner talent and to express it creatively.
Chapter XXII. Media and Educational Technology: The NPE and POA emphasized that in order to avoid structural dualism, modern educational technology should be reached out to the most distant areas and to the deprived sections of beneficiaries simultaneously with the areas of comparative affluence and ready availability.
Chapter XXIII. Teacher and their Training: The new programmes of teacher-education should emphasize need to continuing education and also the need for teachers to meet the thrusts envisaged in this Policy.
District Institutes of Education and Training (DIET) should be established with the capability to organize pre-service and in-service courses for elementary school teachers and for the personnel working in non-formal and adult education. As DIETs get established, sub-standard institutions should be phased out. Selected Secondary Teacher Training Colleges should be upgraded to complement the work of the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. The National Council of Teacher Education should be provided the necessary resources and capability to accredit institutions of teacher-education and to provide guidance regarding curricula and methods. Networking arrangements should be created between institutions of teacher education and university departments of education.
Chapter XXIV. Management Education: According to the NPE and POA, educational planning should be linked to manpower planning. For this, such mechanism should be set up that can link the need based requirement of the society with what it has at present.
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