3 April 2014

Concept of development and its relationship with learning ( CDP Notes)

CTET Exam Notes : Child Development and Pedagogy (CDP) 

in English Medium 

Topic 1 : Concept of development and its relationship with learning

Development :

Development is the process of quantitative and qualitative growth of the child and the emergence and differentiation of capabilities over time. It is the function of maturity as well as interaction with the environment.

Difference Between Growth And Development

The terms growth and development are often used interchangeably. Actually they are conceptually different. Neither growth nor development takes place all by itself. Growth refers to quantitative changes in size which include physical changes in height, weight, size, internal organs, etc.
As an individual develops, old features like baby fat, hair and teeth, etc., disappear and new features like facial hair etc.. are acquired. When maturity comes, the second set of teeth, primary and secondary sex characteristics, etc., appear. Similar changes occur in all aspects of the personality.

Development, by contrast, refers to qualitative changes taking place simultaneously with quantitative changes of growth. It may be defined as a progressive series of orderly, coherent changes. The term progressive signifies that changes are directional, that they lead forward rather than backward. Orderly and coherent suggest that there is a definite relationship between the changes taking place and those that precede or will follow them. Development represents changes in an organism from its origin to its death, but more particularly the progressive changes which take place from origin to maturity. 

Stages Of Development

 All children progress in a definite order through these stages and they all follow similar basic patterns. These stages along with the corresponding ages of the child have been identified by developmental psychologists as follows.

Stage :                                    Time frame

prenatal                                  before birth
infancy                                    Birth to 1 year
early childhood                       1-3 years
preschool                               3-6 years
school childhood                    6-12 years
adolescence                           12-20 years
young adulthood                     20-30 years
adulthood                               30-50 years
mature adult                            50-65 years
aging adult                              65+

1. Prenatal Period (before birth)

Life begins at the time of conception. When the child is in the mother’s womb the particular period spent there is known as prenatal period. All important external and internal feelings start to develop at this stage.

2. Infancy (Birth to 3 years)

From birth up to the third year of life, the stage is known as infancy. Babies grow very rapidly in size during their first three years. The acquisition of motor skills like holding things, crawling, walking proceeds from simple to complex.

3. Pre-school childhood (3-6 years)

The growth in height is not as rapid during this stage as it is in infancy. Children improve eye, hand and small muscle coordination. For example they can draw a circle, pour fluids into a bowl, button and unbutton clothes, and language development is rapid.

4. School childhood (6-12 years - Primary school years)

School children between the age of 6 to 12 years look much taller and thinner. Children exhibit rapid gains in strength and swiftness. They achieve new motor skills and their competence becomes more pronounced in all areas of development.

5. Adolescence (12-20 years)

It is the span of year between childhood and adulthood which begins at puberty. This is the period of rapid physiological growth. There are a number of psychological changes which also take place. Children jump rope, bicycle, ride horses, dance and indulge in all possible games. Cognitively they are more agile and social
relationships become important. But the hallmark of this stage is the search for identity. A number of psychological changes also take place. Given sex-role expectations, girls attach greater importance to good interpersonal relationships and the family while boys emphasize the importance of their own social prestige and career.

6. Adulthood (20-65+ years)

For better understanding, adulthood can be divided into three stages. These are:
(a) Young adulthood (20-50 years)
(b) Mature adulthood or the Middle years (50-65 years)
(c) Aging adulthood (65+ years)
Strength and energy characterize this time of life from the middle twenties when most bodily functions are fully developed, until about the age of 50. Thereafter there is gradual decline in energy level.

Aspects Or Areas Of Development

There are five types of aspects of developments.
1.Physical development
2.Emotional development
3.Cognitive (mental) development
4.Language Development
5.Moral Development

Must Read Full description- Aspects Of Development

Relation to learning

According to psychologist's view-point, the organism, from the moment of birth rather from the time of conception, is surrounded by some kind of environment. The organism does not simply live in the environment but is also acted upon by it. In turn the organism also acts upon the environment. All such action-reaction behaviours involves changes and modifications in the organism. This kind of change or modification is termed 'learning'. These changes can be intentional deliberate and controlled, or may take place without intention