12 April 2014




To apply processes, certain skills are required. These skills are called processing skills. These are as follows.

 (i) Observation: 

You must be clear by now that observation is not just 'seeing' or 'looking at', or 'glancing' or 'viewing'. During the time we are awake, we 'see' or 'look at' various objects and phenomenon around us. The regularity in viewing these phenomena or objects catches our attention and becomes observation.

We see birds flying, raining, cloth drying, water boiling or different varieties of plants, flowers, animals etc. The foremost process skill is observation. It is through observation only that we know our environment, physical as well as social. We observe natural phenomena, objects, plants, animals and human beings and learn about their nature and behaviour
What do you do when you first observe a thing? You look for its characteristics and on the basis of these characteristics you classify it into a particular category.

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(ii) Classification: 

During classification, you may group distinct objects in one group on the basis of similarities which the objects share e.g. text books, reference books, novels, story books etc. are grouped together under the category or class of books. Similarly, are the class of Insects, Flowers, Acids, Carnivorous or Intelligent People etc.

(iii) Communication: 

For representing a class of objects we need some name, label, sign or symbol etc. These labels and signs communicate the information about the class members. Communication is an important skill in transmitting and testing the knowledge. For recording and communicating the information, especially in science we also need the skill of Measurement.

(ii) Measurement: 

Measurement is used,for recording precise and accurate observations. For example 'rise in temperature, change in dimensions, change in duration etc. For recording such observation various scales and instruments could be used. Selection of the instruments depend upon the degree of precision or exactness required in the measurement.

(v) Estimations:

 Sometimes we do not require such accuracy there we can use Estimations e.g. half a class of water or one fourth of a piece of bread, a bunch of flowers etc. On the basis of the acquisition of the aforementioned skills one can peip into the future. While planning activities skill of prediction is required.

(vi) Prediction: 

When you observe dark clouds in the sky, what do you say about the weather? If you have to go out you may have to take an umbrella. Why? Because you have predicted, the weather. Prediction is the skill which helps us to know the behaviour of any particular object or phenomenon before it happens. All our planning depends upon prediction. Prediction about eclipses, crops, weather, behaviour of substances of human beings are some instances.

If you are able to predict various phenomena on the basis of your experience and observations, you can also explain it. To explain the phenomenon you should be able to relate various facts properly. This ability of establishing relationship between various phenomena or facts is the ability of Generalization.

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