26 November 2014

Theories of Intelligence : CTET Notes

CTET Exam Notes : Child Development and Pedagogy (CDP) 

in Hindi Medium 

Topic  : Critical perspective of the construct of Intelligence

Theories of Intelligence:--

Charles Spearman - General Intelligence:

British psychologist Charles Spearman (1863-1945) described a concept he referred to as general intelligence, or the g factor. After using a technique known as factor analysis to to examine a number of mental aptitude tests, Spearman concluded that scores on these tests were remarkably similar. People who performed well on one cognitive test tended to perform well on other tests, while those who scored badly on one test tended to score badly on others. He concluded that intelligence is general cognitive ability that could be measured and numerically expressed.

Louis L. Thurstone - Primary Mental Abilities:

Psychologist Louis L. Thurstone (1887-1955) offered a differing theory of intelligence. Instead of viewing intelligence as a single, general ability, Thurstone's theory focused on seven different "primary mental abilities." The abilities that he described were:
  • Verbal comprehension
  • Reasoning
  • Perceptual speed
  • Numerical ability
  • Word fluency
  • Associative memory
  • Spatial visualization

Robert Sternberg - Triarchic Theory of Intelligence:

Psychologist Robert Sternberg defined intelligence as "mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one’s life." While he agreed with Gardner that intelligence is much broader than a single, general ability, he instead suggested some of Gardner's intelligences are better viewed as individual talents.
Sternberg proposed what he refers to as 'successful intelligence,' which is comprised of three different factors:
  • Analytical intelligence: This component refers to problem-solving abilities.

  • Creative intelligence: This aspect of intelligence involves the ability to deal with new situations using past experiences and current skills.

  • Practical intelligence: This element refers to the ability to adapt to a changing environment.

Howard Gardner - Multiple Intelligence Theory:

This theory was propounded by Howard Gardner of Harvard University. Through his theory he challenged the notion of general intelligence. According to him it is not possible to capture an individual‘s intellectual capacities in a single measure of intelligence. Therefore he tried to give a broad base to the concept of intelligence and it‘s measurement by providing a multiple frame. He asserted that human intelligence or cognitive competence can be better described as a set of an individual‘s multiple abilities, talents and mental skills related to a multiple number of domains of knowledge in a particular cultural setting. He concluded that there are seven independent types of intelligence that grow and develop differently in different people depending upon their hereditary characteristics or environmental experiences. According to Gardner independent intelligence means each intelligence is a relatively autonomous intellectual potential, which is capable of functioning independently of others. These different types are –
  1. Linguistic intelligence
  2. Logical-Mathematical intelligence 
  3. Spatial intelligence
  4. Musical intelligence
  5. Bodily kinesthetic intelligence 
  6. Intra-personal intelligence and 
  7. Inter personal intelligence.
Theories of Intelligence , Charles Spearman - General Intelligence, Louis L. Thurstone - Primary Mental Abilities,  Robert Sternberg - Triarchic Theory of Intelligence, Howard Gardner - Multiple Intelligence Theory, CDP Notes, CTET Exam Notes, Child Development & Pedagogy Study Material

Let us discuss about the different types of intelligence & how it functions.

Linguistic Intelligence

This type of human intelligence is responsible for all kinds of Linguistic Competence-abilities, talents and skills. The different components of this type of intelligence are
-  Syntax
-  Semantics and
-  Pragmatics.

It also includes some school-oriented skills such as Written or oral expression and Understanding. This type of intelligence is most visible in professionals like Lawyers, Lecturers, Writers and Lyricists

From this we can conclude that persons having linguistic intelligence can express well orally or by writing. We can also infer that those are in the profession of lawyers & lecturers must have more linguistic intelligence.

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

This type of intelligence is responsible for all types of abilities, talents and skills in areas related to logic and mathematics. The different components of this type of intelligence are –

Deductive reasoning Inductive reasoning Scientific thinking and Solving logical puzzles etc.

This type of intelligence is found in the professionals like –
-  Mathematicians
-  Philosophers
-  Physicists etc.

Spatial Intelligence

Abilities,  talents  &  skills  involving  the  representation  and manipulation of spatial configuration and relationship is the concern f this type of intelligence. We use this type of intelligence in the sphere of one‘s work. This is used by a painter while applying pigments to a canvas. This intelligence is seen in the professionals like -

Surveyors Navigators Architects Engineers Sculptures and Chess players.

Musical Intelligence

This type of intelligence covers the abilities, talents and skills relating to the field of music. The different components are -
-  Pitch discrimination
-  Sensitivity to rhythm
-  Ability to hear themes in music.
-  Texture and timber.
-  Production of music through performance or composition.

It is visible in a quite large proportion in professionals like.
-  Musicians and
-  Composers.

Bodily Kinesthetic Intelligence

This type of intelligence includes the abilities, talents and skills in using one‘s body or its various parts to perform skillful and purposeful movements. You must have experienced the cricket match. The batting style of Sachin Tendulkar, the fielding of Jonty Rhodes is the example of their bodily kinesthetic intelligence. This type of intelligence is seen among professionals like – Dancers, Athletes and Surgeons.

Intra Personal Intelligence

This type of intelligence enables one to know his self. It includes knowledge and understanding of one‘s own cognitive strengths, styles and mental functioning, as well as one‘s feelings, range of emotions and skills to utilize one‘s fund of knowledge in practical situations. Therefore it is called as private intelligence. On account of its secret and private nature, the access to this type of intelligence in an individual is available only through self-expression like i.e. language, music, visual, art and similar other forms of expression. In practical life, this type of intelligence is demonstrated by - Yogis, Saints and Masters of zen.

Interpersonal Intelligence

This type of intelligence consists of the abilities to understand individuals other than one‘s self and one‘s relations to others.  It  includes  the  ability  to  act  productively,  based  on  the understanding of others. In practical life, this type of intelligence is most visible among
-  Psychotherapists
-  Teachers
-  Sales people
-  Politicians and
-  Religious leaders.

The contribution of this theory is it‘s bold declaration that the concept of a measurable 'g‘ is at best limited and at worst educationally misleading. It is not at all essential that an individual highly loaded with linguistic abilities will also display exceptional ability in all or any remaining domains.

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