15 December 2014

CBSE-NCERT Solution: What Books and Burials Tell Us

CBSE NCERT Class VI (6th) | History Social Studies (Our Pasts-1) Unit Lesson : 5  WHAT BOOKS AND BURIALS TELL US

CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer

Q.1 What do you know about the Vedas?
A.1 Vedas are the most ancient Indian scriptures. There are four of them – the Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda.

Q.2 What do you know about the Rigveda?
A.2 The oldest Veda is the Rigveda, composed about 3500 years ago. The Rigvedaincludes more than a thousand hymns, called sukta or “well-said”. These hymns are in praise of various gods and goddesses.

Q.3 Discuss the gods mentioned in the Rig Veda.
A.3Three gods are especially important: Agni, the god of fire; Indra, a warrior god; and Soma, a plant from which a special drink was prepared.

Must Read: Summary Of What Books and Burials Tell Us 

Q.4 Who composed the vedic hymns?
A.4 i) These hymns were composed by sages (rishis).
1.  Priests taught students to recite and memorise each syllable, word, and sentence, bit by bit, with great care.
2.  Most of the hymns were composed, taught and learnt by men. A few were composed by women.

Q.5 What is the language of the Vedas?
A.5 TheRigveda is in old or Vedic Sanskrit.

Must Read: Summary Of What Books and Burials Tell Us

Q.6 How was the information written in the Rig Veda passed on?
A.6 The Rigveda was recited and heard rather than read. It was written down several centuries after it was first composed, and printed less than 200 years ago.

Q.7 How do historians study the Rig Veda?
A.7 Historians read the literary sources carefully and take clues from them. On the basis of such information, they try to create an understanding of the socio-cultural political set up and place it in the right context and time.

Q.8 What is the importance of cattle, horses and chariots in the Rig Veda?
A.8 i)There are many prayers in the Rigveda for cattle, children (especially sons), and horses.
1.  Horses were yoked to chariots that were used in battles, which were fought to capture cattle.
2.  Battles were also fought for land, which was important form pasture, and for growing hardy crops that ripened quickly, such as barley.
iv)Some battles were fought for water, and to capture people.

Q.9 How was the wealth distributed in the Vedic India?
A.9 i) Some of the wealth that was obtained was kept by the leaders, some was given to the priests and the rest was distributed amongst the people.
1.  Some wealth was used for the performance of yajnas or sacrifices in which offerings were made into the fire.
2.  These were meant for gods and goddesses. Offerings could include ghee, grain, and in some cases, animals.

Q.10 What words have been used to describe ‘people’ in the Rig Veda?
CBSE NCERT Class VI (6th) | History Social Studies (Our Pasts-1) Unit Lesson : 5  What Books and Burials Tell Us, CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer, CBSE NCERT Solution.
A.10 i) There are several ways of describing people — in terms of the work they do, the language they speak, the place they belong to, their family, their communities and cultural practices.

  • ·        There are two groups who are described in terms of their work — the priests, sometimes called brahmins, who performed various rituals and the rajas.The rajas did not have capital cities, palaces or armies, nor did they collect taxes.
  •          Generally, sons did not automatically succeed fathers as rajas.
  • ·        Two words were used to describe the people or the community as a whole. One was the word jana. The other was vish.
  • ·        Several vish or jana are mentioned by name. So we find reference to the Puru jana or vish, the Bharatajana or vish, the Yadujana or vish, and so on.
  • ·        Some times, the people who composed the hymns described themselves as Aryas and called their opponents Dasas or Dasyus. These were p e o p l e who did notperform sacrifices, and probably spoke different languages. Later, the term dasa (and the feminine dasi) came to mean slave. Slaves were women and men who were often captured in war. They were treated as the property of their owners, who could make them do whatever they wanted.

Q.11 What are megaliths?
A.11 i) These stone boulders are known as megaliths (literally big stones). These were carefully arranged by people, and were used to mark burial sites.

  • ·   The practice of erecting megaliths began about 3000 years ago, and was prevalent throughout the Deccan, south India, in the north-east and Kashmir.
  • ·     While some megaliths can be seen on the surface, other megalithic burials are often underground.
  • ·     Sometimes, archaeologists find a circle of stone boulders or single large stone standing on the ground. These are the only indications that there are burials beneath.

Q.12 What are the features of these burials? All these burials have some common features
.i) Generally, the dead were buried with distinctive pots, which are called Black and Red Ware.
ii) Also found tools and weapons of iron and sometimes, skeletons of horses, horse equipment and ornaments of stone and gold.

Q.13 How do burials help in understanding social differences?
A.13 Archaeologists think that objects found with askeleton probably belonged to the dead person.
i) Sometimes, more objects are found in one grave than in another. For example in Brahmagiri one skeleton was buried with 33 gold beads, 2 stone beads, 4 copper bangles, and one conch shell. Other skeletons have only a few pots.
ii) These finds suggest that there was some difference in status amongst the people who were buried. Some were rich, others poor, some chiefs, others followers.

Q.14 Were some burial spots meant for certain families?
A.14 i) Sometimes, megaliths contain more than one skeleton.
·         These indicate that people, perhaps belonging to the same family, were buried in the same place though not at the same time.
·         The bodies of those who died later were brought into the grave through the portholes.
·         Stone circles or boulders placed on the surface probably served as signpoststo find the burial site, so that people could return to the same place whenever they wanted to.

Q.15 Discuss the megalithic site of Inamgaon.
A.15 It is a site on the river Ghod, a tributary of the Bhima. It was occupied between 3600 and 2700 years ago.
i)  Here, adults were generally buried in the ground, laid out straight, with the head towards the north.
ii)Sometimes burials were within thehouses.
iii)          Vessels that probably contained food and water were placed with the dead.
iv)          One man was found buried in a large, four legged clay jar in the courtyard of a five-roomed house (one of the largest houses at the site), in the centre of the settlement.
v)This house also had a granary. The body was placed in a crosslegged position.

Q.16What have the occupations at Inamgaon revealed?
A.16 i) Archaeologists have found seeds of wheat, barley, rice, pulses, millets, peas and sesame.
ii)  Bones of a number of animals, many bearing cut marks that show they may have been used as food, have also been found.
iii)These include cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, dog, horse, ass, pig, sambhar, spotted deer, blackbuck, antelope, hare, and mongoose, besides birds, crocodile, turtle, crab and fish.
There is evidence that fruits such as ber, amla, jamun, dates and a variety of berries were collected.

Q.17 What do you know about the oracle bones?
A.17 i) Around 3500 years ago, we find some of the first evidence of writing in China.
ii)  These writings were on animal bones. These are called oracle bones, because they were used to predict the future.
iii)Kings got scribes to write questions on the bones — would they win battles? Would the harvest be good? Would they have sons?
iv)The bones were then put into the fire, and they cracked because of the heat.
v)  Then fortune-tellers studied these cracks, and tried to predict the future.

Q.18 What do skeletal studies tell us?
A.18 i) It is easy to make out the skeleton of a child from its small size. However,there are no major differences in the bones of a girl and a boy.
ii)  Sometimes, people decide on the basis of what is found with the skeleton. For
instance, if a skeleton is found with jewellery, it is sometimes thought to be that of a woman.
iii)However, there are problems with this. Often, men also wore ornaments.
iv)A better way of figuring out the sex of a skeleton is to look at the bone structure. The hip or the pelvic area of women is generally larger to enable child bearing. These distinctions are based on modern skeletal studies.

Q.19 Discuss the contribution of Charaka to the Indian medicine.
A.19 i) About 2000 years ago, there was a famous physician named Charaka who wrote a book on medicine known as the CharakaSamhita.
ii)  There he states that the human body has 360 bones. This is a much larger number than the 200 bones that are recognised in modern anatomy.
iii)Charaka arrived at this figure by counting the teeth, joints and cartilage.

Q.20 Write a short note on the Sanskrit language.
A.20 Sanskrit is part of a family of languages known as Indo-European. Some  Indian languages such as Assamese, Gujarati, Hindi, Kashmiri and Sindhi, and many European languages such as English, French, German, Greek, Italian and
Spanish belong to this family. They are called a family because they originally had words in common.

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