30 January 2015

CBSE-NCERT Solution : The Delhi Sultans

CBSE NCERT Class VII (7th) | Social Studies | History

Chapter  :  The Delhi Sultans 

CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer

Q1 Who made Delhi their capital for the first time?
Ans: Delhi first became the capital of a kingdom under the Tomar Rajputs.

Q2 Who defeated Tomar Rajputs in the middle of the 12th century?
Ans: Chauhans (also referred to as Chahamanas) of Ajmer defeated the Tomar Rajputs in the middle of 12th century.
Q3 What were the coins minted under the Tomars and the Chauhans called? 
Ans : The coins were called Dehliwal and they were widely circulated.

Q4 What was Tawarikh? Give details about the authors of Tawarikh.
Ans: Tawarikh were the histories of Delhi Sultans, written in Persian. The authors of Tawarikh were the learned men: secretaries, administrators, poets and courtiers, who both recounted the events and advised rulers on governance.

The authors of Tawarikh lived in cities and hardly in villages. They often wrote the histories for Sultans in the hope of rich rewards. These authors advised rulers on the need to preserve an ideal social order based on Birthright and Gender Distinctions.
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Q5 Who was Raziyya Sultan?
Ans : Raziyya Sultan was Sultan Iltutmish’s daughter.

Q6 What were the views of the chronicler Minhaj-i-Siraj , about Raziyya Sultan?  
Ans : The chronicler , Minhaj-i-Siraj , recognized that Raziyya Sultan was more able and qualified than her brothers. But he was not comfortable having a queen as a ruler. Nor were the nobles happy at her attempts to rule independently. She was removed from the throne in 1240.

Q7 What were the hinterlands?
Ans : These were the lands adjacent to a city that supply it with goods and services.

Q8 What were Garrison towns?
Ans: These were the fortified settlements with soldiers.

Q9 What difficulties were faced by Delhi Sultans in controlling garrison towns in distant Bengal and Sindh?
Ans: Rebellion wars and bad weather was snapping the fragile communication routes. Delhi’s authority was also challenged by Mongol invasions from Afghanistan.

Q10 What was Bandagan?
Ans: Rather than appointing aristocrats and landed chieftains as governors, the early Delhi Sultans, especially Iltutmish favoured their special slaves purchased for military
services, called Bandagan in Persian.

Q11 What problem was associated with the system of Bandagan?
Ans: It was observed that the clients and slaves were loyal to their masters and  patrons but not to their heirs. New sultans often had their own servants. As a result the accession of a new monarch often saw conflict between the old and new nobility.

Q12 Explain the 1st set of campaigns of the Delhi Sultans to expand and consolidate the sultanate.
Ans: The 1st set of campaigns took place along the internal frontiers. It aimed to consolidate the hinterlands of the garrison towns.
During these campaigns the forests were cleared in the Ganga – Yamuna doab and hunter gatherers were expelled from their natural habitat. These lands were given to the peasants and agriculture was encouraged.
New forts and town were constructed to protect trade routes and promote regional trade.

Q13 Explain the 2nd round of campaigns of the Delhi Sultans to expand and consolidate the sultanate.
Ans : The second round of expansion occurred along the external frontier.Military expeditions into southern India started during the reign of Alauddin Khalji and culminated with Muhammad Tughluq. Sultanate armies captured horses, elephants and slaves and carried away precious metals.

Q14 What were the 3 type of taxes imposed by the Delhi Sultans? Ans: The three type of taxes imposed by the Delhi Sultans were:
1)  Tax on cultivation called Kharaj and amounting to about 50% of the peasant’s produce.
2)  Tax on cattle
3)  Tax on houses

Q15 Who were Iqtadars and how were they controlled by Delhi Sultans?
Ans: The Khalji and Tughluq monarchs appointed military commanders as governers of territories of varying sizes. These lands were called Iqtas and there holders were called Iqtadars or Muqtis.
The duty of Muqtis was:-
1.  To lead military campaigns.
2.  Maintain law and order in their Iqtas.
3.  Pay salaries to the soldiers.
4.  Collect revenue.
Control over Muqtis was most effective if their offices were not inheritable and if they were assigned iqtas for a short period of time.

Q16 Why was Muhammad Tughlaq known as the wisest fool?
Ans: He was known as the wisest fool because his administrative policies were a failure.
·        His campaign into Kashmir was a disaster.He disbanded his large standing army.
·        Rather than constructing a new garrison town, the oldest of the four cities of Delhi was emptied of its residents and the soldiers were garrisoned there. The residents of the old city were sent to the new capital of Daulatabad in the South.
·        Raising taxes in order to meet the expense of maintaining such a large army of soldiers and coincidence of famine in this area led to widespread rebellion.
·        To pay cash salaries to his soldiers, he used ‘token’ currency made out of cheap metals. People did not trust these points and this cheap currency could be easily counterfeited.

Q17 Explain the administrative policies of Alauddin Khalji.
·        Against the Mongol attacks under Genghis Khan he raised a large standing army.
·        He constructed a new garrison town named Siri for his soldiers.
·        He was paying salaries to his soldiers in cash and not by giving iqtas.
·        He controlled the prices of goods in Delhi. Prices were carefully surveyed by officers, and merchants who were not selling the goods at the prescribed rates were punished.