29 January 2015

CBSE-NCERT Solution: Human Environment- Settlement, Transport, Communication

CBSE NCERT Class VII (7th) | Social Studies | Geography

Chapter  :  Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer

Q1. What are settlements?
Settlements are places where people build their homes.

Q2. What is a site?
The place where a building or a settlement develops is called its site.

Q3. What is Transhumance?
It is a seasonal movement of people. People who rear animals move in search of new pastures according to changes in seasons.

Q4. What is a transport?
Transport is the means by which people and goods move.

Q5. Name the highest roadways in the world.
Manali-Leh highway in the Himlayan Mountains is one of the highest roadways in the world.
Q6. How are Waterways useful to us?
Waterways are the cheapest for carrying heavy and bulky goods over long distances.

Q7. What is communication?
Communication is the process of conveying messages to others.

Q8. What is mass media?
The newspapers, radio and television can be used to communicate with a large number of people. They are therefore called mass media.
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Q9. What conditions help in selecting a place for settlement?
The natural conditions for selection of an ideal site are-
1.  Favourable climate
2.  Availability of water
3.  Suitable land
4.  Fertile soil

Q10. How and why civilizations developed in the earlier times?
Early human beings lived on trees and in caves. When they started to grow crops it became necessary to have a permanent home. The settlements grew near the river valleys as water was available and land was fertile. With the development of trade, commerce and manufacturing, human settlements became larger. Settlement flourished and civilizations developed near river valleys.

Q11. How are the following settlements different from each other-
a) Permanent settlement and Temporary settlement
Settlements which are occupied for a short time are called temporary settlements.  The people living in deep forests, hot and cold deserts and mountains often dwell in such temporary settlements. They practice hunting, gathering, shifting cultivation and transhumance.
In permanent settlements people build homes to live in for longer duration.

b)  Compact settlement and scattered settlement
A compact settlement is a closely built area of dwellings, wherever flat land is available.
In a scattered settlement dwellings are spaced over an extensive area. This type of settlement is mostly found in hilly tracts, thick forests, and regions of extreme climate.

c)  Urban settlement and rural settlement
The villages are rural settlement where people are engaged in activities like agriculture, fishing, forestry, crafts work and trading etc. Local materials like stones, mud, clay, straw etc are used to construct houses.
The towns are small and the cities are larger urban settlements. In urban areas the people are engaged in manufacturing, trading, and services.

Q12. Give examples of how animals are used as means of transport.
In our country donkeys, mules, bullocks and camels are common. In the Andes Mountains of South America, llamas are used, as are yaks in Tibet.

Q13. Name the four major means of transport.
The four major means of transport are roadways, railways, waterways and airways.

Q14. How are subways different from flyovers?
Roads built underground are called subways/under paths, whereas Flyovers are built over raised structures.

Q15. Why are roads the most commonly used means of transport?
The most commonly used means of transport especially for short distances are roads. They can be metalled (pucca) and unmetalled (kutcha). The plains have a dense network of roads. Roads have also been built in terrains like deserts, forests and even high mountains.

Q16. Why are Railways important for us?
The railways carry heavy goods and people over long distances quickly and cheaply. Advanced technological skills have enabled lying of railway lines in difficult mountain terrains also. The super fast trains with steam engines have been introduced to make the journey faster.

Q17 What are the advantages of waterways?
Waterways are the cheapest means of transport for carrying heavy and bulky goods over long distances.

Q18. Name the two types of Waterways.
They are mainly of two types – inland waterways and sea routes. Navigable rivers and lakes are used as inland waterways.
Sea routes and oceanic routes are mostly used for transporting merchandise and goods
from one country to another. These routes are connected with the ports.

Q19. Name some of the important sea ports of the world.
Some of the important ports of the world are Singapore and Mumbai in Asia, New York, Los Angeles in North America, Rio de Janerio in South America, Durban and Cape Town in Africa, Sydney in Australia, London and Rotterdam in Europe

Q20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Airways?
Advantages- This is the fastest way of transport developed in the early twentieth century. It is the only mode of transport to reach the most remote and distant areas especially where there are no roads and railways. Helicopters are extremely useful in most inaccessible areas and in time of calamities for rescuing people and distributing food, water, clothes and medicines.

Disadvantages- It is also the most expensive due to high cost of fuels. Air traffic is adversely affected by bad weather like fog and storms.

Q21. How are Satellites useful to us?
·        Satellites have helped in oil exploration, survey of forest, underground water, mineral wealth, weather forecast and disaster warning.
·        Now we can send electronic mails or e-mails through Internet.
·        Wireless telephonic communications through cellular phones have become very popular today.

Q22. How is the evolution in the communication system beneficial for man?
·        The advancement in the field of communication has brought about an information revolution in the world. Different modes of communication are used to provide information, to educate as well as to entertain.
·        Through newspapers, radio and television we can communicate with a large number of people.
·        The satellites have made communication even faster. Satellites have helped in oil exploration, survey of forest, underground water, mineral wealth, weather forecast and disaster warning.
·        We can send electronic mails or e-mails through Internet.
·        Wireless telephonic communications through cellular phones can be made.
·        Internet provides us with worldwide information and interaction and has also made our lives more comfortable.
·        Now we can reserve tickets for railways, airways and even cinemas and hotels sitting at home.