31 January 2015

CBSE-NCERT Solution : The Making of Regional Cultures

CBSE NCERT Class VII (7th) | Social Studies | History

Chapter  :  The Making of Regional Cultures

CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer

Q1 How can one trace the developments of regional cultures?
What we understand as regional cultures today are often the product of complex processes of intermixing of local traditions with ideas from other parts of the subcontinent. As we will see, some traditions appear specific to some regions, others seem to be similar across regions, and yet others derive from older practices in a particular area, but take a new form in other regions.

Q2 When and where was the Chera kingdom established?
The Chera kingdom of Mahodayapuram was established in the ninth century in the south-western part of the peninsula, part of present-day Kerala.

Q3 Which language was spoken in this region? 

Q4 Who introduced this language?
The rulers introduced the Malayalam language and script in their inscriptions.

Get to know about The Making of Regional Cultures (Ncert / Cbse Solutions & Revision Notes), Chapter Summary- Development of Regional Culture, Regional Art Forms, Bengali Culture,CBSE / NCERT Revision Notes, CBSE NCERT Class VII (7th) | Social Studies | History, CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer, CBSE NCERT Solution.Q5 Which other language did the Cheras follow? 

Q6 Name the work of literature that is based upon both the languages i.e. Malayalam and Sanskrit.

Q7 Where is Jagannath Temple? 
In Puri in Orissa

Q8 How can you say Jagannath was a local god?
qTo date, the local tribal people make the wooden image of the deity, which suggests that the deity was originally a local god, who was later identified with Vishnu.

Q9 Who got the Jagannath Temple constructed?
One of the most important rulers of the Ganga dynasty, Anantavarman

Q10 Who dedicated his kingdom to Lord Vishnu?
King Anangabhima III dedicated his kingdom to the deity and proclaimed himself as the “deputy” of the god.

Q11 Why did the Mughals, the Maraths and the officials of the East India Company try to control the temple?
They felt that this would make their rule acceptable to the local people.

Q12 What name was given by the British to the region that constitutes most of present-da  Rajasthan?

Q13 How did Rajputs influence the culture of Rajasthan?
From about the eighth century, most of the present-day state of Rajasthan was ruled by various Rajput families. Prithviraj was one such ruler. These rulers cherished the ideal of the hero who fought valiantly, often choosing death on the battlefield rather than face defeat.

Q14 What sources have been used to know about the rich and royal traditions of the Rajputs?
Stories about Rajput heroes were recorded in poems and songs, which were recited by specially trained minstrels. These preserved the memories of heroes and were  expected to inspire others to follow their example. Ordinary people were also   attracted by these stories – which often depicted dramatic situations, and a range of strong emotions – loyalty, friendship, love, valour, anger, etc.

Q15 How did Kathak evolve as a dance form?
The term Kathak is derived from Katha, a word used in Sanskrit and other languages for the story. The kathaks were originally a caste of story-tellers in temples of north India, who embellished their performances with gestures and songs.
Kathak began evolving into a distinct mode of dance in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries with the spread of the Bhakti movement. The legends of Radha-Krishna were enacted in folk plays called rasa lila, which combined folk dance with the basic gestures of the kathak story-tellers.

Q16 Name the two gharans of Kathak.
One was in the courts of Rajasthan (Jaipur) and the other in Lucknow.

Q17 Who was the major patrons of Kathak?
Under the patronage of Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh, it grew into a  major art form. By the third quarter of the nineteenth century it was firmly entrenched as a dance form not only in these two regions, but in the adjoining areas of present- day Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. Emphasis  was laid on intricate and rapid footwork, elaborate costumes, as well as on the enactment of stories.

Q18 What are miniature paintings?
Miniatures are small-sized paintings, generally done in water colour on cloth or paper. The earliest miniatures were on palm leaves or wood.

Q19 Name a few Mughal Emperors who patronized the miniature paintings.
The Mughal emperors Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan patronized these paintings.

Q20 What led to the spread of the miniature paintings to the different parts of the Indian sub-continent?
With the decline of the Mughal Empire, many painters moved out of the courts of the emerging regional states. As a result Mughal artistic tastes influenced the regional courts of the Deccan and the Rajput courts of Rajasthan.

Q21 What is Basohli?
A bold and intense style of miniature painting is called Basohli. This form of painting developed in the foothills of Himalayas around the present day Himachal Pradesh.

Q22 Why do we know much more about the cultural practices of rulers than about those of ordinary people?
We know much more about the cultural practices of rulers than about those of ordinary people because ordinary women and men painted as well – on pots, walls, floors, cloth – works of art that have occasionally survived, unlike the miniatures that were carefully preserved in palaces for centuries.

Q23 From which language has Bengali been derived? 
Bengali been derived from the Sanskrit.

Q24 How did Sanskrit reach Bengal?
From the fourth-third centuries BCE, commercial ties began to develop between Bengal and Magadha (south Bihar), which may have led to the growing influence of Sanskrit. During the fourth century the Gupta rulers established political control over north Bengal and began to settle Brahmanas in this area.
Thus, the linguistic and cultural influence from the mid-Ganga valley became stronger.
In the seventh century the Chinese traveler Xuan Zang observed that languages related to Sanskrit were in use all over Bengal.

Q25 How can we say that the modern day Bengali is a mixed blend of many languages?
Although Bengali is derived from Sanskrit, it passed through several stages of evolution. Also, a wide range of non-Sanskrit words, derived from a variety of sources including tribal languages, Persian, and European languages, have become part of modern day Bengali.

Q26 Into how many categories can the early Bengali be divided into?
Early Bengali literature may be divided into two categories – one indebted to Sanskrit and the other independent of it.
The first includes translations of the Sanskrit epics, the Mangalakavyas and Bhakti literature such as the biographies of Chaitanyadeva, the leader of the Vaishnava Bhakti movement.
The second includes Nath literature such as the songs of Maynamati and Gopichandra, stories concerning the worship of Dharma Thakur, and fairy tales, folk tales and ballads.

Q27 Who is a Pir?
Pir is a Persian word meaning a spiritual guide.

Q28 Why were temples built in Bengal?
Bengal witnessed a temple-building spree from the late fifteenth century, which culminated in the nineteenth century. The temples and other religious structures were often built by individuals or groups who were becoming powerful – to both demonstrate their power and proclaim their piety. Many of the modest brick and terracotta temples in Bengal were built with the support of several “low” social groups, such as the Kolu (oil pressers) and the Kansari (bell metal workers). The coming of the European trading companies created new economic opportunities;
many families belonging to these social groups availed of these. As their social and economic position improved, they proclaimed their status through the construction of temples.

Q29 What are the important architectural features of the temples of Bengal? 
When local deities, once worshipped in thatched huts in villages, gained the recognition of the Brahmanas, their images began to be housed in temples. The temples began to copy the double-roofed (dochala) or four-roofed (chauchala)
structure of the thatched huts. This led to the evolution of the typical Bengali style in temple architecture.
In the comparatively more complex four-roofed structure, four triangular roofs placed on the four walls move up to converge on a curved line or a point.
Temples were usually built on a square platform. The interior was relatively plain, but the outer walls of many temples were decorated with paintings, ornamental tiles or terracotta tablets. In some temples, particularly in Vishnupur in the Bankura district of West Bengal, such decorations reached a high degree of excellence.

Q30 What is Brihaddharma Purana?
Brihaddharma Purana, a thirteenth-century Sanskrit text from Bengal, permitted the local Brahmanas to eat certain varieties of fish.