5 January 2015

Process of Teaching and Learning

CTET 2015 Exam Notes : Child Development and Pedagogy (CDP) 


Teaching is a series of events through which a teacher attempts to bring desired change in behaviour of the students. This brings about a change in the thinking, feeling and action of the students. It helps them to adapt to their environment.

In the Dictionary of Education, Teaching is defined as:
1.       Teaching is the act of instructing in an educational institution.
2.       Teaching is the management by the instructor of the teaching-learning situations including:
(a)     Direct interaction between the teacher and the learners
(b)    Proactive decision-making process of planning, designing and preparing the materials for the teaching-learning conditions and
(c)     Post-active redirection (Evaluation, Redesign and Dissemination) and
3.   Collectively, that which is taught, such as the teaching of a religious leader.”
One of the many ways to understand the nature of Teaching is to analyse the definitions of ‘Teaching’.

Edmund Amidon - “Teaching is an interactive process, primarily classroom talk which takes place between teacher and pupils and occurs during certain definable activities.”
H. C. Morrison - “Teaching is an intimate contact between a more mature personality and a less mature one which is designed to further the education of the latter.”
Clarke - “Teaching refers to activities that are designed and performed to produce
change in students’ behaviour.”

Principles of Teaching

General Principles of Teaching are 
Principle of activity 
Principle of linking with actual life 
Principle of planning 
Principle of division 
Principle of definite aims 
Principle of correlation 
Principle of individual differences 
Principle of co-operation 
Principle of revision 
Principle of remedial teaching 
Principle of healthy environment and proper control 

Psychological Principles of Teaching

Process of Teaching and Learning, Principles of Teaching,  Important Features Regarding Teaching and Learning, CDP Notes, CTET 2015 Exam Notes, Child Development & Pedagogy Study Material
Principle of motivation 
Principle of reinforcement 
Principle of training of senses 
Principle of automated study 
Principle of change, rest and recreation 
Principle of practice and exercise 
Principle of group dynamics 
Principle of sympathy and co-operation 
Principle of remedial teaching 
Principle of stimulation 
Principle of fostering creativity and self-expression

Important Features Regarding Teaching and Learning

Lessons need to be structured around “big ideas” rather than unconnected pieces of information. In this way, children have an umbrella under which they can fit new information with what they already know. A big idea can be something like “water is important to life,” and the topic could be “today we will learn how to keep “water clean.” 
We need to consider children’s development needs. Some children will need more time to progress than others. 
We need to be facilities of learning and recognize the unique characteristics of our teachers. The learning environment should support all learners. 
Students need to talk together with their teacher and with one another during activities that are both individual and team-oriented. 
We need to plan activities that encourage ALL children to work as a team, such as working in pairs or small groups on relevant tasks. 
Students must be able to find the curriculum useful to them, be encouraged to ask questions and consider information, and be able to ask construct their own understanding of the subject matter. 
We need to ask good questions to allow students, to explain their ideas. Rather than asking questions that require a “Yes” or “No” answer only, we need to ask open-ended questions to allow children to express their views, ideas, and opinions;’ for instance, we can ask questions that end with “what do you think?” 
Thoughtful questions asked by the teacher and active discussion among students will stimulate to search for information. Interacting with others, receiving new information, and reflecting on ideas help children to construct new knowledge.

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