26 January 2015

Role of Government in Health

Role of Government in Health : Ncert / Cbse Solutions & Revision Notes

Health Care in India

Health means the ability to remain free from injuries and illness. Several factors affect our health like our surroundings, our nutrition level and the amenities provided to us. Hence the primary duty of a government is to provide adequate healthcare facilities to all.

These facilities are like health centers, laboratories, hospitals, ambulance services and blood banks.
These facilities are run by qualified doctors, nurses, workers and other healthcare professionals.

There are two types of healthcare facilities i.e. private healthcare services and public healthcare services. Publich health service is a chain of healthcare centers and hospitals run by the government in the rural and urban areas.

At the village level, there is Public Health Center (PHC) while at the district level there is a District Hospital to supervise all the health centers. These public health service centers undertake various actions and campaigns to prevent spreading of diseases.

The urban areas on the other hand, have a wide range of privately owned hospitals and nursing homes. These are run by doctors for profits and hence charge lots more as compared to the public healthcare services. Very less number of doctors is settled in the rural areas and hence the villagers are bound to travel to the cities for treatment.

Only 20% of the population in India can afford the medicines for their treatment. It is hence the duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the living standard of the people to improve public health, as per our constitution.

CBSE NCERT Class VII (7th) | Civics Social Studies

Chapter  :  Role of government in Health

CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer

Q1. What is health?
Ans. Health means our ability to remain free of illness and injuries.

It also means to be active and in good spirits in whatever we may be doing.
It isn’t healthy to be dull, inactive, anxious or scared for long stretches of time.
Health means to be without mental strain. All these aspects are a part of health.

Q2. What are the factors that affect the health?
Ans.  Following are the three factors that affect health:

·         Availability of clean drinking water.
·         Pollution free environment.
·         Adequate and nutritious food to eat.

Q3. What is the status of healthcare in India?
·         India is the largest producer of doctors in the world.
·         There has been a substantial increase in the number of hospitals from 1950 to 2000.
·         India is the 4th largest producer of medicines in the world and is also a large exporter of medicines.
·         Most doctors settle in urban areas and the number of doctors with respect to the population is much less in rural areas.
·         About 5 lakh people die from Tuberculosis every year.
·         Almost 2 million cases of malaria are reported every year.
·         Half of all children in India do not get adequate food to eat and are undernourished.

Q4. What facilities are required to prevent and treat illness?
Ans. We require healthcare facilities such as:
1.    Health centres.
2.    Hospitals
3.       Laboratories.
4.       Ambulance services.
5.       Blood banks etc.  that provide the required healthcare and services that patient need.

In order to need to run these facilities we need:
1.       Health workers.
2.       Nurses.
3.       Qualified doctors and other health professionals who can advise, diagnose and treat illness.
4.       We also need medicines and equipments that are necessary for treating patients.

Q5. What are the two types of healthcare services in our country?
Ans. The two types of healthcare services in our country are:
1.       Public healthcare services.
2.       Private healthcare services. 

Q6. Explain Public healthcare services.
Ans. It is a system of hospitals and healthcares run by the government. They cover both rural and urban areas to provide treatment to all kind of problems.

Q7. What kind of Public health services are available at the village level, district level and in cities?
Ans. At the village level there are health centers where there is usually a nurse and a village health worker. They are trained in dealing with common illnesses and work under the supervision of doctors at the Primary Health Center (PHC). Such a center covers many villages in a rural area.

At the district level is the District Hospital that also supervises all the health centers. Large cities have many government hospitals.

Q8. Why are Public Health services so called?
Ans. The Public Health services are so called for the following reasons:

1.       In order to fulfill its commitment of providing healthcare to all citizens, the government has established these hospitals and health centers.
2.       The resources needed to run these services are obtained from the money that we, the public, pay to the government as taxes. Hence, such facilities are meant for everyone.
3.       One of the most important aspects of the public health system is that it is meant to provide quality healthcare services either free or at low cost, so that even the poor can seek treatment.
4.       Another important function of public  health is to take action to prevent the spread of diseases such as TB, malaria, jaundice, cholera, diarrhea etc. This has to be organized by the government with the participation of people otherwise it is not effective.

Q9. According to our constitution, what is the primary duty of the government?
Ans.  According to our constitution, the primary duty of the government is to ensure the welfare of every person.

Q10. What are private health facilities?
Ans. It refers to a wide range of health facilities like hospitals, nursing homes, clinics etc that are  privately owned. These are the health facilities that are not owned and controlled by the government. In private facilities the patients have t pay a lot of money for the services that they use.

Q11. What kind of Private Health facilities are available in rural and urban areas? 
Ans. Following are the facilities available in rural and urban areas:
1.       In rural areas, one finds Registered Medical Practitioners (RMPs).
2.       Urban areas have large number of doctors, many of them providing specialized services. There are hospitals and nursing homes that are privately owned. There are many laboratories that do tests and offer special facilities such as X-ray, ultrasound, etc. There are also shops from where to buy medicines.

Q12. “Is adequate healthcare available to all?” Comment.
Ans.  In India, we face a situation where private services are increasing but public services are not. What is then available to people are mainly private services.  These are concentrated in urban areas. As these services are run for profit, the cost of these services is rather high. Medicines are expensive. Many people cannot afford them.

Sometimes it is not only the lack of money that prevents people from getting proper medical treatment. Women, for example, are not taken to a doctor in a prompt manner. Women’s health concerns are considered to be less important than the health of men in the family.

Many tribal areas have few health centers and they do not run properly. Even private health services are not available.

Q13. Why are poor people more prone to illness?
Ans. Those who are poor are in the first place undernourished. These people are not eating as much as they should. They are not provided with basic necessities like drinking water, adequate housing, clean surroundings etc and are therefore more likely to fall ill.

Q14. How has Kerala improved upon the health facilities to be provided to its people?
Ans.  In 1996, the Kerala government made some major changes in the state. Forty per cent of the entire state budget was given to panchayats.

They could plan and provide for their requirements. This made it possible for a village to make sure that proper planning was done for water, food, women’s development and education.
Health centers were also improved. All this helped to improve the situation.

Q15. What does the Costa Rica constitution say about the provision of health services to its people?
Ans. Costa Rica is considered to be one of the healthiest countries in South America. Costa Rica took a very important decision and decided not have an army. This helped the Cost Rican government to spend the money that the army would have used, on health, education and other basis needs of the people.
The Costa Rican government believes that a country has to be healthy for its development and pays a lot of attention to the health of its people.

Q16. Mention the constitutional provisions regarding the healthcare in India.
Ans. According to our constitution, it is primary duty of the government to ensure the welfare of the people and provide health care facilities to all.

The government must safeguard the Right of Life of every person. If a hospital cannot provide timely medical treatment to a person, it means that this protection of life is not being given.

It is the duty of the government to provide the necessary health services including treatment of in emergency situations. The state government can also be asked to give money to the patient that he had spent on his treatment.

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