6 February 2015


NCERT / CBSE NOTES : Chapter Summary


People in urban areas earn their living in various ways. They are either self-employed or work for someone.
Several people also travel from rural to urban areas in search of work. Most of these workers are self-employed and work on streets selling goods, repairing items or providing services.  They build temporary shops, use carts or simply spread plastic sheets. Initially the hawkers weren’t allowed to do business in certain areas.

However, the government has now allotted areas in the city where they could set up their shops. A large number of people work in factories and industries in and around the city. They may either be permanent or temporary, called ‘casual basis’.

These temporary workers are forced to search for other jobs when they go out of job. There is no job security for them. In cities, there are groups of people sitting or standing in chowks waiting to be employed by someone. Such places are called “labour chowk”.

Some people also run shops, showrooms and supermarkets which are licensed by the municipal corporation. These people hire supervisors and helpers to run their business smoothly.

Several workers are permanently employed in private companies, factories, offices and government departments. They get a regular monthly salary.

These employees are also entitled to other benefits such as savings for old age, holidays as well as annual leave and medical facilities.

Get to know about URBAN ADMINISTRATION (Ncert / Cbse Solutions & Revision Notes), Chapter Summary, CBSE / NCERT Revision Notes, CBSE NCERT Class VI (6th) | Social Studies | Civics, CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer, CBSE NCERT Solution.

CBSE NCERT Class VI (6th) | Social Studies | Civics


CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer

Q1. Why did the children go to Yasmin Khala's house?
Children went to Khala’s house because she had just got retired from the Municipal Corporation and they thought she would be the best person to guide them in the matter of street light and its management.

Q2. What is sub contracting?
In order to save money the Commissioners of several municipalities across the country had hired private contractors to collect and process garbage. This is called Sub-Contracting. This means that the work that was earlier being done by government workers is now being done by a private company.

Q3. How is the office of commissioner different from a councillor?
(i)   The Councillor's Committees and the councillors decide on the issues and the Commissioner and the administrative staff implement these.
(ii) The Commissioner and the administrative staff are appointed whereas the Councillors are elected.

Q4. How is a ward councillor elected?
The city is divided into different wards and ward councillor get elected from it. The complicated decisions that affect the ward are taken by these councillors. These councillors further in a group also form committees to decide and debate issue which affects the whole city.

Q5. Write few lines on the life of contract workers.
·        These contract workers get paid less and their jobs are temporary.
·        Collecting garbage is quite a dangerous job and often these contract workers do not have any access to safety measures
·        They are also not taken care of if they are injured while working.

Q6. What are the sources of money of the Municipal Corporation? 
Municipal Corporation gets its money from variety of taxes such as-
        People who own homes have to pay a property tax
        Taxes for water and other services are collected.
        There are also taxes for education and other amenities.
        Entertainment tax.

Q7. List the functions of Municipal Corporation.
·        It takes care of street lights, garbage collection and water supply.
·        It keeps the streets and the market clean.
·        Municipal Corporation is also responsible for ensuring that diseases do not break out in the city.
·        It also runs schools, hospitals and dispensaries.
·        It makes parks and gardens and maintains them.

Q8. What did Gangabai do and why?
·        Gangabai along with other women went to the Ward Councillor to protest against the situation of sanitation in the area.
·        Gangabai described the situation in the locality to him who promised to go with them the next day to meet the Commissioner.
·        He asked Gangabai to get a petition signed by all of the adults in the locality saying that garbage was not being collected.
·        The Commissioner met with this large group but began giving excuses. It took another larger and more noisy protest for the sanitation service
in the locality became more regular.