3 April 2015

Confronting Marginalisation - NCERT Notes

NCERT / CBSE NOTES | Class 8th (VIII) : Chapter Summary

Confronting Marginalisation

Confronting Marginalisation

The marginalized communities have struggled to be part of mainstream society. Steps taken by the government to help these communities enter the mainstream society are:
Subsidized hostels for Dalit and Adivasi community students, lower cut off marks for college admission, special scholarships for marginalized community students and reservation of seats in college and reservation of posts in government employment.

It has also given special education and culture rights to minority communities like Muslims and Parsis to help them protect their traditions, culture and religion.
The Indian constitution has a special law for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes i.e. the Prevention of Atrocities Act which was passed in 1989.

The Prevention of Atrocities Act of 1989 is meant to protect from crimes like forcibly feeding inedible substances, forcibly removing clothes or parading people with painted face, forcibly grabbing their allocated lands and using physical force against them.

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CBSE NCERT Class VIII (8th) | Social Studies | Civics

Chapter  :  Confronting Marginalisation

CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer

Q1. What is marginalization?
Ans. Marginalization refers to the reduce power and importance of certain people in our country. Example Tribals or Adivasi, OBC’s, Religious minorities and women.

Q2. Mention the state inhabited by Adivasis.
Ans. Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand.

Q3. Who are Adivasi?
·         Adivasi term literally means ‘original inhabitants’or communities who lived, and often continue to live, in close association with forests.
·         Around 8 per cent of India’s population is Adivasis and many of India’s most important mining and industrial centres are located in Adivasis areas – Jamshedpur, Rourkela, Bokaro and Bhilai
·         Adivasis are not a homogeneous population: there are over 500 different Adivasi groups in India.

Q4. Which state is known as more than 60% of tribes?
Ans. Orissa is known as more than 60% of tribals.

Q5. Briefly describe the religious beliefs of Adivasis.
·         These often involve the worship of ancestors, village and natural spirits, the last associated with and residing in various sites in the landscape – ‘mountain-spirits’, ‘river- spirits’, ‘animal-spirits’, etc.
·         The village spirits are often worshipped at specific sacred groves within the village boundary while the ancestral ones are usually worshipped at home.
·         Adivasis have always been influenced by different surrounding religions like Shakta, Buddhist, Vaishnav, Bhakti and Christianity.

Q6. How has the Adivasi community influenced other religions?
·         Adivasi religions themselves have influenced dominant religions of the empires around them, for example, the Jagannath cult of Orissa and Shakti and Tantric traditions in Bengal and Assam.
·         During the nineteenth century, substantial numbers of Adivasis converted to Christianity, which has emerged as a very important religion in modern Adivasi history.

Q7. What are the languages usually spoken by adivasis?
Ans . Adivasis speak in Bengali and Santhali.

Q8. How have the adivasis contributed towards the development of the country?
Ans. Forests covered the major part of our country till the nineteenth century and the Adivasis had a deep knowledge of, access to, as well as control over most of these various tracts at least till the middle of the nineteenth century. This meant that they were not ruled by large states and empires. Instead, often empires heavily depended on Adivasis for the crucial access to forest resources.

Q9. Why are tribal communities poor?
·         Losing their land and access to the forest means that tribal lose their main sources of livelihood and food.
·         Most Adivasis have migrated to cities in search of work where they are employed for very low wages in local industries and at construction sites.
·         45 percent of tribal groups in rural areas and 35 percent in urban areas live below the poverty live. This leads to deprivation in other areas.
·         When Adivasis are displaced from their lands, they lose much more than a source of income.
·         Many tribal children are malnourished. Literacy rates among tribals are also very low.

Q10. Why are Adivasis referred to as the minorities?
Ans. The term minority is most commonly used to refer to communities that are numerically small in relation to the rest of the population. The Adivasis are also less in number than other communities and are thus referred to as the minorities. Adivasis are 8 per cent of the population.

Q11. Mention the largest religious minority in our country.
Ans. Muslims are 13.4 per cent of India’s population and are considered to be a marginalized community in India today because in comparison to other communities they have over the years deprived of the benefits of socio – economic development with regards to literacy and public employment.

Q12. How does the constitution of India protect the right of the minorities?
Ans. The Indian constitution recognized that the culture of the majority influences the way in which society and government might express themselves.
1.      Constitution provides safeguards to religious minorities as part of our fundamental rights.
2.      Safeguards are present to protect minority communities against the possibility of being culturally dominated by the majority.
3.      They also protect them against any discrimination and disadvantage that they may face.
4.      Given certain conditions, communities that are small in number relative to the rest of society may feel insecure about their lives, assets and well – being. This sense of insecurity may get accentuated if the relations between the minority and majority communities are fraught. The constitution provides these safeguards because it is committed to protecting India’s culture diversity and promoting equality as  well  as justice.

Q13. “Muslims are marginalized community” Give two reasons?
·         Muslims are marginalized community in India because in comparison to other communities, they have over the years been deprived of the benefits of socio- economic development.
·         Like other minorities, Muslim customs and practices are sometimes quite distinct from what is seen as the mainstream. Some not all Muslim may wear a burqa, sport a long beard, wear a fez, and these become ways to identify Muslims. Because of this they tend to be identified differently and some people think they are not like ‘rest of us’. Often this becomes the excuse to treat them unfairly, and discriminate against them.

Q14. Would you agree with the statement that economic and social marginalization are interlinked? Why?
1.      The social marginalization of Muslims has led to them migrating from places where they have lived, often beading to ghettoisation of the community. Due to this marginalization the literacy rate of Muslims is also very low as compared to other communities and the public employment of Muslims is also very low. This prejudice leads to hatred and violence.
2.      Losing their lands and access to the forest means that tribals lose their main sources of livelihood and food. Having gradually lost access to their traditional homelands, many adivasis have migrated to cities in search of work where they are employed for very low wages in local industries or at building or construction sites. They, thus, get caught in the cycle of poverty and deprivation. 45 percent of tribal groups in rural areas and 35 percent in urban areas live below the poverty line. This leads to deprivation. In other areas. Many tribal children are malnourished. Literacy rates among tribals are also very low.
There exists interconnectedness between the economic and social dimensions of tribal life.  Destruction  in  one  sphere  naturally  impacts  the  other  often  this  process  of dispossession and displacement can be painful and violent.