30 August 2015


CBSE NCERT Class X (10th) | Social Studies | Economics


Income and other goals

Most people have higher income as a developmental goal.

People have other departmental goals than higher income like:
  • Well-being of a family
  • Closeness with friends and colleagues
  • Equal treatment and security
  • Respect and freedom
  • Opportunities to improve his skills

People have a mix of goals for development. Income is measurable goal in terms of money. There are many developmental goals which are not measurable.

The non-measurable developmental goals are sometimes more important than measurable developmental goals like income. Non-measurable developmental goals like respect, security and equality are more important than income when it comes to working women and encouraging more women to work.

National Development Comparison

It is easier to compare things when we compare them using a particular criterion or characteristic. Countries with more income are considered more developed than other countries that have less income. The income of a country is the sum of the incomes of its entire population.

Different countries of the world have different populations, so total income is not a reliable criterion to compare national development. A more reliable criterion for comparing national development is the average income or per capita income. Average income of a country= Total income of the country/ Population of the country.

Based on its per capita income, India falls in the category of low-income countries. Per capita income hides individual income disparities. Countries with equitable distribution of income have no rich and no poor. Countries without equitable distribution of income have rich and poor people.

Other criteria of economic development

People have many different developmental goals other than income. Higher income alone cannot bring about development. Several criteria other than per capita income are used to evaluate the economic development in different countries and states.

Some criteria other than income used to compare development are:
  • Life expectancy
  • Infant mortality
  • Literacy rate
  • Net attendance ratio
  • Gross enrollment ratio

A community also needs public facilities for education and training, affordable healthcare, and provisions for adequate food and nutrition for development. Body mass index is an interesting way to find your health status.

Countries with lower per capita income than India have comparable or higher developmental performance on other criteria. 

Sustainability of development

As more and more development happens, more and more resources get used up. Increase in cultivation is an indicator of development. The resources used for development may be renewable resources or non-renewable resources. We have limited stocks of non-renewable resources that are lost forever once used.

Renewable resources get stored by nature in a period of time like groundwater which gets replenished by nature. Use of renewable resources faster than what nature can restore can lead to their scarcity. If development continues at its present pace, there may be a time in future when we may run out of resources and no further development would be possible.

The concept of sustainability of development comes in here. Sustainability of development involves finding ways for continuous development without the risk of running out of resources or causing irreparable damage to environment.

Sustainability of development would involve:
  • More efficient use of our existing resources
  • Finding fresh reserves of resources
  • And coming up with innovative ideas and technology to use new resources in place of conventional ones.