13 October 2016



The period under review covers the system of education in India from about the 10th century A.D. to the middle of the 18th century, i.e. before the British rule.

Chief characteristics of Muslim education:-

Aims of education:

(a)    Developing love for Muslim culture and religion.
(b)   Enabling the individual for Islamic life.
(c)    Preparing the students for the next world.
(d)   Equipping the students for a vocation.
(e)    Preparing individuals for running administration.

(1)   Patronage of the rulers: The rulers helped in the spread of education. They built educational institutions and universities. They endowed them with the funds. Big landlord also provided financial help for the spread of education. The rulers patronized the men of learning.

(2)   No state control: The rules neither claim any authority over the educational institutions nor interfered with their management.

(3)   Religion dominated education: In the words of S.N. MUKERJI, “The whole educational system was saturated with the religious ideals which influenced the aim, the contents of study, and even the daily life of the pupils.” The pupils acquired knowledge as a religious obligation.

(4)   Countryside as the centre of education: By and large, educational institutions flourished in the countryside.

(5)   Provision of various discipline: Through education was primarily religion- oriented, it included the study of many intellectual activities like mathematics, astronomy, grammer, polity and politics. Art and literature were also encouraged.

(6)   Norms of conduct: Adequate stress was laid on well- defined norms of behaviour, pattern of thought, building up personality and character of the pupils.

(7)   Teacher-pupil relationship: In the Muslim period also the teacher was respected as during the Brahmanic or Budhist period. There was intimate relationship between the teacher and the pupil, although the practice of living with the teacher was not as common with the Muslim as it was in the case of Brahmanic and Budhist period.

(8)   Learned teachers: Teachers took to teaching for love of learning. They were held in high esteem. Prof. S.N. Mukerji has observed, “Learning was prized for its own sake and as a mark of the highest human development and teaching was never handicapped by examination requirements

(10) Individualized instructions: Since the number of students with the teacher was limited, he paid individual attention to each students .
(11) Monitorial system: Although a teacher did not have many pupils to teach yet, still the teacher would take the help of senior and advanced students to teach the 
younger or the junior. 

(12) Discipline: Punishments were quit severe. Truants and delinquents were caned 
on their palms and slapped on their faces. A strange mode of punishment was to make the children hold their ears by taking their hands from under their thighs while sitting on their tiptoes.

(13) Types of institutions: Primary education was imparted in ‘Maktabs’ and secondary and high education in ‘Madrasahs’.

(14) Vocational education: Provision was also made for vocational, technical and professional education. Emperor Akbar took considerable interest in education as is evident from the passage of from the ‘Ain-in-Akbar’. The passage makes interesting reading and provides valuable information on the system of instruction, i.e., curriculum, methods of teaching etc.