22 December 2016




Adam classified different educational agencies into seven categories.

1.         Types and agencies related to schools
i.            Indigenous elementary schools
ii.            Elementary schools not indigenous, i.e., new types of elementary schools run by missionaries and others.
iii.            Domestic education
iv.            English schools
v.            Native female schools
vi.            Indigenous schools for advanced learning(colleges)
vii.            Adult instruction

2.   Extent of Education: Adam says that no village in Bengal was without a primary school. There were about one lakh of schools scattered in all the villages. Adam called schools as the places and homes where education was given.
3.   Teacher’s Salary: Teachers were paid rs5 to 8 per month.
4.   Duration of schooling: The students started education at the age of 8 and read up to the age of 14 years.
5.   Courses of studies: The Hindus were generally reading Bengali and Sanskrit and Muslims were reading Arabic and Persian.
6.   Education of Women: Adam states that the very name of women education made people afraid.
7.   Schools open for all: Schools were not meant for a particular caste or class of society. They were open to every one who wanted to study.


1.      Publication of a graded series of new textbooks (I-IV) in Bengali, Hindi and Urdu, to be prepared by Indians and Europeans in collaboration.
2.      Appointment of an examiner for each district. It was suggested that the examiner should survey his area, supply and explain textbooks to teachers, examine teachers on the content of textbooks already provided after a period of six months, distribute grants and record to teachers according to the percentage or passes in school examinations, and supervise the work of teachers.
3.      Appointment of inspectors for supervising the work of examinees.
4.      Training of teachers. Adam proposed to convert vernacular department of English schools into normal schools for training teachers of indigenous schools. He suggested that these teachers should be required to study in these schools for three months in a year for four successive years.
5.      Award of small grants of land to village schools for their maintenance.
6.      Organization of experimental farms for agricultural education.


Adam wanted that his plan may be first tried in some selected areas before final adoption. But Macaulay had pronounced his verdict already that education was to be given through English medium to the upper classes only and hence Adam’s scheme for mass education fell on deaf ears. The plan was considered as impracticable and Adam was forced to resign in disgust v. Such was the fate of one of the ablest reports ever written on Indian education. A golden opportunity for building up a national system of education was lost.


1       Macaulay vehemently criticized Indian Education System in his minute written on Feb, 1835
2       Bentinck’s proclamation marks a turning point in the history of education in India. It was the first declaration of the educational policy, which, the British government wanted to adopt in this country.
3       During the dawn of nineteenth century two groups emerged. One was orientalists and the other was Anglicists.
4       Vagueness regarding the interpretation of charter act of 1813 and national system of education intensified the controversy between the two groups.
5       It was observed by S.N Mukherji that Macaulay’s minute had all defects of a preliminary spadework, but it is very important document ,because it influenced Britain’s educational policy in this country for more than a century. It should be admitted that western learning has done good to India, and better results have been achieved through Macaulay’s bold policy than it would have been possible through half –hearted attempts of the orientalists.
6       The new knowledge led to India’s unity and her great recovery brought her into contact with scientific research of the west and developed Indian languages to a standard in which university language became possible. But his minutes can neither be regarded as the greater charter of Indian education nor can it condemn as the evil genius of Macaulay.
7       Macaulay was wedded to the Filtration Theory and believed firmly in the superiority of western civilization.
8       Adam’s reports were regarded as on of the ablest reports ever written on Indian education but it was rejected by Macaulay.

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