20 December 2016

The Hunter Commission 1882 on The Education of Woman, Muslim, Harijans and Backward Classes

Hunter Commission was pained at the pitiable condition of the women education of  the time. It gave out the following recommendations for overall development and expansion of the women education:
1.    Arrangements of Public Funds.
2.    Appointment of lady teachers.
3.    Appointment of lady inspectresses.
4.    Free education for women.
5.    Different curriculum for girls.
6.    Decent arrangement of hostels for girls.
7.    Liberal Grant-in-aid for girl education.
8.    Special arrangement for education of ‘Pardah’ observing ladies.
9.    Arrangements for Secondary Education.

RECOMMENDATIONS AND AIMS OF INDIAN EDUCATION COMMISSION OR THE HUNTER-COMMISSION, 1882
Sir William Wilson Hunter

Muslim Education:

The commission consider that the education of the Muslims was not given sufficient and proper attention. The commission recommended that every effort should be made to popularise Muslim education.
Special funds should be allocated for it. In the localities where Muslims are in majority, the teaching of Hindustani (Urdu) and Persian should be given in middle and high schools. More scholarships should be given to Muslim students as they are unable to pay the fee. In the Government appointments, Muslim should be given proportionate representation.

Education of Harijans and Backward Classes. 

Aboriginals and Hill Tribes.

In regard to the education of Harijans and Backward Classes, the following recommendations were put forward:
(a)    All the schools run by Government, Municipalities and local boards should be directed to admit children of Harijans and Backward classes.
(b)    In places where an objection is raised to the admission of these Harijans and Backward children, special schools should be opened for them.
(c)    It was made recommendatory on the part of school teachers and inspectors to make judicious effects to remove caste prejudices.
In regard to the education of Aboriginals Hill tribes , commission made the following recommendations :
(a)      It was recommended that the education of the Aboriginals Hill tribes cannot be left to private agencies only and so Government was expected to take up this job.
(b)     Children of these tribes were not be charged any fee.
(c)      The education of students should be such as may help them to establish contact with their neighbours.
(d)     It was also recommended that subjects taught should be of the most elementary character.

Religious Education :


The Commission made the following recommendations in this connection :
1.    Religious education of any sort should not be given in the public schools.
2.    Religious education may be imparted in the private institutions and the Government shall have nothing to do with it.
3.    While giving grant-in-aid to institutions imparting religious education as well, attention should be paid to their teaching work only.

Significance of Hunter Commission and its impact on Education

  The Hunter Commission constitutes an important stage in the history of education in India. Majority its recommendations were adopted by the government with the result that with the devolution of control to the local bodies, the British element in the teaching and the inspecting departments was considerably reduced reduced. Another significant improvement after 1882 was the development of the Punjab University which was founded in that year, thus, lessening the burden of the Calcutta University. The progress in primary schools from 1882 to 1901 was displayed by number of students in them, rising from 22 lakhs in 1882 to 32 lakhs in 1901. In the secondary school,  this number increased from 42,993 in 1886 to 6,33,728 in 1901, while in the colleges, the number of students increased from 11,501 in 1886 to 23,009 in 1901.


 Points to Remember :

1      A Commission under the chairmanship of William Hunter, a member of the executive council of the Governor-General of India, was appointed in 1882.
2       It was the first commission which gave wide and comprehensive recommendations on education in Indian context. It had twenty members comprising of Indian educationists.
3      The commission has observed that Primary Education should be related to life and should be practical and useful.
4      The government should entrust the responsibility of secondary education wholly to the Indians and should only give financial grant for removing certain difficulties.
5 The commissions gave some important suggestions for improvement of higher education. The colleges engaged in higher education should be given sufficient grants for experimental laboratories, reading rooms, libraries, equipments, science rooms, buildings and furniture etc.
6 The commission recommended that every effort should be made to popularise Muslim education.
7   The Hunter Commission constitutes an important stage in the history of education in India. Majority its recommendations were adopted by the government with the result that with the devolution of control to the local bodies, the British element in the teaching and the inspecting departments was considerably reduced reduced

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