22 December 2016

MAIN AIM OF INTRODUCING ENGLISH SYSTEM OF EDUCATION IN INDIA (MACAULAY'S MINUTE)


MAIN AIM OF INTRODUCING ENGLISH SYSTEM OF EDUCATION IN INDIA


Macaulay wrote in his minute “we must at present do our best to form a class of persons Indian in blood and colour and English in taste, opinions in morals and in intellect,”

Macaulay’s arguments in favour of English: Macaulay rejected the claims of Arabic and Sanskrit as against English, because he considered that English was better than either of them. His arguments in favour of English were

MACAULAY'S MINUTE, Charter act of 1813
Thomas Babington Macaulay

1.      It is the key to modern knowledge and is therefore more useful than Arabic or Sanskrit.
2.      It stand pre eminent even among the language of the west in India, English is the language sponsored by the ruling class. It is likely to become the language of commerce throughout the seas of the east.
3.      It would bring about renaissance in India, just as Greek or Latin’s did in England  or just as the languages of western Europe in civilized Russia
4.      The natives are desirous of being taught English and are not eager to learn Sanskrit or Arabic.
5.      It is possible to make the natives of this country good English scholars, and to that end our efforts ought to be directed
6.      It was impossible to educate the body of people but it was possible through English education to bring about “a class of persons Indian in blood and colour and English in taste , opinions in morals and in intellect”, and that education was to filter down from them to the masses

Acceptance of minute by lord William Bentinck: lord William Bentinck endorsed the minute by writing one line beneath it “I give my entire concurrence to the sentiments expressed in the minutes “.he passed the resolution of march 1835 which determined the age, content and medium of instruction in India

 NET RESULT OF MACAULAY’S MINUTE


MERITS
1. A clear cut picture of the national system of education in India emerged
2. The system proved very helpful in promoting the objectives for which it was planned
3 English schools began to be established.
4. English became the medium of instruction.
5. Western arts and sciences became popular.
6. Filtration theory of education emerged

DEMERITS
1. Indian culture and philosophy receded to the background
2. Vernacular languages began to be neglected
3. Mass education was neglected
4 Western culture made rapid strives.
5. Arabic and Sanskrit languages found very few takers
6. Arabic, maktabs and Sanskrit pathshalas saw gradual disappearance


RESOLUTION

1.      His Lordship –in council is of the opinion that the great object of the British government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India; and that all the funds appropriate from the purpose of education would be best employed on English education alone.
2.      It is not the intention of His Lordship –in –council to abolish any college or school of native learning, while the native population shall appear to be inclined to avail themselves of the advantages which it affords, and His Lordship –in-council directs that all the existing professors and students at all institutions under the superintendence of the committee shall continue to receive their stipends …. No stipends shall be given to any student that may hereafter enter at any of these institutions; and that when any professor of oriental learning shall vacate his situations, the committee shall report to the government the number and state of the class in order tat the government may be able to decide upon the expediency of appointing a successor.
3.      It has come to the knowledge of the governor General-in-council that a large sum has been expanded by the committee on the printing of oriental works: His Lordship-in –council directs that no portion of the funds shall hereafter be so employed.
4.      His Lordship-in-council directs that all funds which these reforms will leave at the disposal of the committee be henceforth employed inn imparting to the native population a knowledge of English literature and science through the medium of the English language; and His lordship-in –council requests the committee to submit to government with all exposition, a plan for the accomplishment of this purpose.

 EVALUATION OF BENTINCK’S PROCLAMATION


Bentinck’s proclamation was the first declaration of the educational policy of the British government which it wanted to adopt in this country Bentinck was greatly influenced by the views of Macaulay .the orientalists lost their battle. With Bentinck’s proclamation following results were clearly visible

i.      The aim of education in India were defined by the British 
ii.      Type of education envisaged for Indian people was spelt out
iii.      The promotion of western arts was acknowledged
iv.      The printing of oriental works was to be stopped
v.      New grants or stipends to students of oriental institutions were to be stopped in future
vi.      The proclamation promised to supply government with English educated Indian servants ,cheap but capable at the same time
vii.      The proclamation accelerated the growth of new learning by leaps and bounds

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