21 December 2016




Lord Curzon carried out several other educational reforms also and you must be familiar with these reforms also.

            Agricultural Education:

Lord Curzon was the first person to give importance on organising agricultural education. He introduced Lord Curzon carried out several other educational reforms also and you must be familiar with these reforms also.
(i) agriculture as a subject of study at school stage,
(ii) established the Department of Agriculture,
(iii) created Central Research Institute at Puna and
(iv) laid down the principle that every important province in India must
have its own Agricultural college which should be properly staffed
and equipped.

            Establishment of Art School :
Schools of Art were reformed which had failed in their primary object of promoting Indian art. Curzon directed that the schools should be continued with certain modifications in their subjects, methods and organisation.

            Moral Education :
Although the Missionaries tried to incorporate religious influence in education Lord Curzon rejected the idea and expressed in his Resolution on Educational Policy (1904) that “In Govt. institutions the institution is, and must continue to be, exclusively secular”.

            Creation of the Department of Archaeology :
Curzon found that the ancient monuments of India were not properly being cared for and, therefore, created a special department for the purpose. He also passed the Ancient Monument Preservation Act. of 1904.

            Foreign Scholarships :
Scholarships in large number for sending Indian students abroad for technological studies were sanctioned. The necessity of technical education in India had been felt by Lord Curzon for developing Indian industries.

            Appointment of Director General in Education :
One of the greatest contributions of Lord Curzon in the field of Indian education was to create the post of Director General of Education in India.


Now let us examine critically Curzon’s contribution towards Indian Education.

Lord Curzon was severely criticised in his days. He failed to create faith and confidence in the minds of educated Indians. They thought that his reform had some deep political motives. For the socio-political condition of the country in those days it was not possible to evaluate Curzon’s activities in an objective and impartial manner. But now it is admitted that Lord Curzon did yeoman service to the cause of Indian education. During his days every aspect of education received his keen attention and it was Lord Curzon who started the movement for educational reconstruction in India. He laid the foundation of the reforms of Indian universities and tried to raise the standard of Indian higher education. He recognised the responsibility of education by the central Govt. Standards of secondary education was also raised through rigid and regular inspection and stricter condition of recognition. Due to his patronage expansion of primary education was striking. Technical and vocational education received impetus in his hands. Reforms were also introduced in agriculture education, department of Agriculture was established and arrangement was made for agricultural research. His attempt to preserve the ancient monuments of India and creation of a department of Archaeology was praiseworthy.

In this unit we have discussed the educational policy of Lord Curzon, who came to India as Viceroy in 1899. He initiated his educational reform by holding a conference at Simla in 1901. This was the first conference on an all India basis and a total of 150 resolutions were passed covering all the stages of education.First we have focused our attention on Curzon’s primary educational policy and observed that Curzon rightly identified the causes for the poor condition of primary education. He took some significant steps like liberal grant in aid, abolition of the system of payment by result, teacher training, improvement of teacher’s salary and curriculum etc. As a result, the number of recognised primary schools and enrolment increased significantly.

Regarding secondary education, to check the growth of inefficient private schools Lord Curzon took certain strict measures. But at the same time he tried to improve the quality of secondary education also.

Lord Curzon set up a University Education Commission in 1902 to enquire into the condition of the universities and improving their constitution and working. On the basis of the recommendations of the commission the Indian Universities Act of 1904 was passed. In the last section of this unit we have discussed other reforms carried out by Lord Curzon and assessed his contribution towards Indian education.

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