30 December 2016

Radhakrishnan Commission/University Education Commission 1948-49 (Part 2)

 The university of education commission 1948-49 made following recommendations which still hold good:--
  1. the standard of admission to the university courses should correspond to that of the present intermediate examination that is after the completion of twelve years of the study at a school and an intermediate college ; ( this has been done by the introduction of 10+2+32 pattern)
  2. in each province a large number of well equipped and well staff intermediate colleges ( with class IX to XII or IV to XII) be establish;
3.  in order to divert students to different vocation after 10 to 12 years of schooling, a large number of occupational institutes be open;
4.  Refreshers to be organized by the universities for high school and intermediate college teacher.
5.  To avoid overcrowding at universities and colleges, the maximum number in the arts and science faculty of teaching universities be fixed at 3,000 and in affiliated college at 1500
6.  the number of working days be substantially increased to ensure minimum of 180 in the year, exclusive of the examination days; with three terms, each of about 11  week duration
7.  lectures be carefully planned and supplemented by tutorials, library work and written exercise;
8.  there be no prescribed text book for any courses of study;
9.  Attended at lectures be compulsory for undergraduate student as a present, and that private candidate of only certain categories be allowed to appear for public examinations. An experiment should, however, be made with evening college for working people;
10.  tutorial instruction be developed in all institution imparting university education in the following manner:-
a.   students should be report to tutors in group not exceeding 6 in number;
b.  tutorial should be made available to undergraduate both pass and honours;
c.   tutorial should stimulate the mental development of the students and should not become mere coaching for examinations;
d.  if tutorial are to succeed, the teaching staff should be improve in quality;
11.  universities libraries be greatly improved by;
1.  larger annual grants;
2.  the introduction of the open access system;
3.  longer hours of the works;
4.  better organization; and
5.  a well trained staff which should include reference assistants; and
  1. The laboratories should be improved in building, fittings, equipment, workshops and    technicians. .

Radhakrishnan Commission/University Education Commission 1948-49

IV Teacher Emoluments

Recognizing the importance of the teaching profession the commission recommended the following grades:
        University Teachers
1.  Professor  Rs. 900-500-1350
2.  Reader Rs. 600-300-900
3.  Lecturer Rs. 300-25-500
4.  Fellows or Instructions Rs. 250-25-500
5.  Research fellows  Rs. 250-25-500

University teacher should give the community punctuality, efficiency and devotion to duty in relation to their teaching work and new ideas and newer methods in relation to their research work.
Scales of pay for affiliated colleges with post graduate classes
Principal Rs. 800-400-1000
Senior lecturers (two in each college) Rs. 500-25-800
Lecturer Rs. 200-15-310-20-400-25-500
Scales of pay for affiliated colleges with no post graduate classes
Principal Rs. 600-45-800
Senior lecturer (two in each college) Rs. 400-25-600 

V  Courses of Study

 Knowledge should be considered as a whole. While drawing up the courses. Link between various aspects should not keep in view. There should be a connecting bond between the general academic and vocational education. The principles and practices of general education must become an integral part of course at the intermediate and degree stage.
Courses at the degree level
Apart from a course in general education following courses is to be taken up by students:
·     Federal language or if that happens to be mother tongue, a classical or a modern Indian language.
·     English
·     And for arts students not less than two special subjects preferably from each group.
a.   Classical or a modern Indian language
b.  English, German or French
c.   Philosophy
d.  History
e.   Mathematics
f.    Fine Arts
g.   Political Science
            Social Sciences:
h.   Economics
i.     Sociology
j.    Psychology
k.  Anthropology
l.     Geography
m. Home Economic
          For science students not less than two special subjects from the following list:
a.   Mathematic;
b.  Physics
c.   Chemistry
d.  Botany
e.   Zoology
f.    Geology

VI     Professional Education

Agriculture.  The study of agriculture at the primary secondary and higher education be  given high priority in national economic planning. So far as is feasible. agricultural education be given a rural setting.  
Commerce. A commerce student should be given opportunities for practical work in three or four different kinds of firms.  
Engineering and Technology. The number engineering schools of different grades be increases particularly for training of grades 4 and 5 (foremen, craftsmen, draftsmen, overseers. etc.) 
In establishing new engineering colleges or institutes there should be fresh critical inquiry as to the types of engineering services needed in Indian. Uncritical reception and imitation of existing institutions here and aboard should be avoided.  
Law: A three year degree course be offered in special legal subjects. Students pursuing degree souses in law shall not be permitted to carry outer degree courses simultaneously except in a few instances where advanced students have proved their interest and are studying related subjects in law and some other fields.  
Medicines : the maximum number of admission to a medical college be 100 provide the staff and equipment for that number are available.
Religious education: all educational institutions should start work with a few minutes for silent meditation.
·     In the first year lives of the great religious leaders like Gautama Buddha, Confucius, Zoroaster, Socrates, Jesus, Sankara, Ramanuja, Madhva, Mohammad, Kabir, Nanak, Gandhi be taught.
·     In the second year some selections of a universalism character from the scriptures of the world be studied.
·     In the third year the central problems of the philosophy of religion be considered.

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