30 December 2016

Sadler Commission / Calcutta University Commission Report -1917 (Part 1)

The Resolution on Educational policy (1913) had recommended that a university should be established for each province, the teaching activities of universities should be encouraged and
that the colleges located in mofussil  towns should be developed in to teaching universities in due course. But n action could be taken by the Government primarily because of the outbreak of the Great World War. In 1917, the Government of India appointed the Calcutta University Commission which is also known as the Sadler, the Vice-Chancellor of Leeds University. The commission visited all university centers and after 17 months submitted its report in 13 volumes, giving a critical and comprehensive survey of educational problems. Although it deals withCalcutta University only, the problem it studied were more or less common to the other Indian universities. The report had greatly influenced the subsequent course of secondary and higher education the country. The ommission had 6 members besides the chairman.

Sadler Commission / Calcutta University Commission Report -1917
Sadler Commission / Calcutta University Commission Report -1917

To enquire into the condition and prospects of the University of Calcutta and to consider the question of constructive policy in relation to the question it presents.

Essential Features Of the Sadler Commission

Broadly speaking, recommendations of the Commission may be studied under the following heads:
1.      Recommendations Relating to Calcutta University.
2.      Recommendations Relating to All Universities in India.
3.      Recommendations Relating to Muslim Education.
4.      Recommendations Relating to Teacher Training.
5.      Recommendations Relating to Technology.
6.      Recommendations Relating to Professional and Vocational Educations.
7.      Recommendations Relating to Modern Indian Leagues.
8.      Recommendations Relating to Secondary Education.

1.      Recommendations Relating to Calcutta University and its Problems

The Commission thoroughly examined the problems of Calcutta University and reached the conclusion that the size of the university had become abnormally large and that the number of students and colleges affiliated to it had increased too much to be efficiently dealt with under a single university.
The Commission put forth three suggestions in this respect.
                                 I.      There should be establish a teaching and residential University at Dacca;
                                II.      The teaching resources should be organized in Calcutta in such a way as to create a real teaching University; and
                              III.      The development of mosfussil colleges should take place in such a way as to ensure the encouragement of gradual rise of university centers at a few places by concentrating all possible resources for higher education on them.

2.      Recommendations Relating to All Universities

A.     Important recommendation on university of Education
                                                        i.            Intermediate classes should be separate from university and a curriculum spreading over three years should be prescribed for the degree of B.A. The stage of admission to the university was to be intermediate and not matriculation examination.
                                                      ii.            Intermediate colleges should be established for the sake of completing the first stage. These colleges should conduct teaching in arts, science, medicine, engineering, education, agriculture and commerce.
                                                    iii.            A separate High School and Intermediate Board should be formed in every province, consisting of representatives of the Government, universities, high schools and intermediate colleges, for the sake of managing secondary education. The Board should be made free from the control of the Department of Education.
                                                     iv.            The mother tongue should be used as medium of instruction in intermediate colleges.  

B.     Internal Administration and organization of Universities

The Comission expressed their general views upon the internal administration and organization of the universities as follows:
1)     The teachers of the universities should be given more power with a view of removing unnecessary State control over them.
2)     Regulations governing the working of universities should be made less rigid.
3)     Provision should be made for the institution of Honours courses, as distinct from Pass course for the sake of abler student.
4)     The duration of degree course should be three years after the intermediate stage.
5)     For the internal administration of university, a representative court in place of Senate and small Executive Council in place of the syndicate should be setup.
6)     A special commite should be constituted for making appointments to Professorships and Readerships. The committee should include external experts also.
7)     An Academic Council and Board of Studies be set up to settle academic question pertaining to courses of study, examination, degrees and research work etc.
8)     Different faculties should be created.
9)     A full-time and salaried vice-chancellor should be appointed.
10) A Director of physical training should also be appointed to pay attention to the health and physical welfare of the students.
11) The Department of Education in the universities should be established and education included as a subject for B.A. (Pass) and intermediate courses.
12) It also recommended the establishment of an inter-university board coordinating the activities of the various Indian universities.

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