20 December 2016

The Hunter Commission 1882 on Higher Education

University Education or Higher Education

            The commissions gave some important suggestions for improvement of higher education. The commission has observed that at the time of giving grant it should be seen that the educational institutions well utilized the given grant.
The grants should be determined keeping in view the strength of teachers and students, need and capacity of the institution. The colleges engaged in higher education should be given sufficient grants for experimental laboratories, reading rooms, libraries, equipments, science rooms, buildings and furniture etc.

Sir William Wilson Hunter

Development of Higher Education

            We have said earlier that secondary education prepared students for higher education. Therefore, its progress had its progress had its impact on university education. Since secondary education progressed between 1882 and 1902, the university education also progressed during this period. With a view to obtain good services youths began to come to universities. The commissions had recommended for encouraging private enterprise in field of education. So many colleges were opened by voluntary organisations. Their number was larger than the college started by Missionaries. By (1882) there were 437 colleges run by Missionaries, whereas the number of colleges run by voluntary organisation at this time was 42. By (1902) there were 191 colleges in the whole country. Out of these 145 were art colleges, 30 laws, 4 engineering, 5 training, 4 medical and 3 agricultural colleges. Besides, there were 12 women’s colleges for higher education in the country by (1902).

In (1885) the Indian National Congress was established. This created a feeling of nationalism and patriotism. Youths educated in colleges were greatly influenced by the revolutionary ideas of such great writer as Rousseau, Byron, Burk, Bacon, Milton, Lock, Wordsworth and others. There educated Indians were imbued with the ideals of sacrifice, national morality and independence. They became perturbed over the foreign rule in the country and they began to began to dream for national freedom. This situation led to the generation of nationalism in education. The Indians more intensively realised the necessity of education and they thought that education would be a good tool for obtaining freedom. Therefore, the work of expansion of education was accelerated by private enterprise under the control of Indians. It was at this time that such great personalities were born who took the vow of national service with the ultimate objective of winning national freedom. High school began to be developed into colleges and a number of new colleges were also opened. Great persons like R.P. Paranjbe, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Triplankar. Ayanger took the work of education in their hands. The Ferguson Colleges was established at Pona in 1870. Sir Surendra Nath Banerji controlled the management of Ripon Colleges at Calcutta.

The name of Maharshi Dayanand Saraswati would ever remain immortal in the field of education in India. He stood for some of the ancient ideals of education and established a number of D.A.V. Colleges in the Northern part of the country. He tried to remove the ills of Hindu Society and religion through his educational ideals. The Arya Samaj took up his work and tried to propagate his ideals of life throughout of the whole country.

In the city of Banaras Mrs. Annie Besant established two Central Hindu Colleges in (1898) on the basis of Hindu ideals. Later on this college became the nucleus of the Banaras Hindu University established by Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya.

  The Commission had also made recommendation in regard to higher education. These recommendations may be summed up under the following heads:
(a)   While giving grants-in-aid to the colleges, the number of the teachers, expenditures of the college, efficiency and local needs must also be kept in mind.
(b)   If needed, non recurring or, special grant may be given to the colleges for establishing libraries and other educational equipments.
(c)    Such varied and vast curricular should be arranged in these colleges so that the students must have the subject of there choice and aptitude.
(d)   Meritorious and promising students may be set to foreign countries for higher education on the Government scholarships.
(e)   In order to raise the moral standard of the students such books should be compiled which may contain the principles of religion and human religion at large.
(f)     The number of students receiving free education should be limited.
(g)   Private colleges should be authorised to receive lesser fee as compared to the Government colleges
(h)   While appointing teachers such Indians should be preferred who have received education in European universities.  

Education Department: Hunter Commission made the following recommendations in this regard:
(a) The number of inspectors in every Province should be raised so that every institution may be inspected.
(b) As far as possible Indians should be appointed on the post of District Inspector of Schools.
( c) As far as possible the Inspector of the Primary schools should be local.


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