7 January 2017

Kothari Commission(1964-66) Part 2


The report of the commission is an excellent document on education. In its report the commission expressed its form belief that education is the most powerful instrument of national development.
The report of the commission has been appropriately entitled as ‘education and national development’.

Indian Education Commission or Kothari Commission(1964-66)
Indian Education Commission or Kothari Commission(1964-66)

The report is divided into four sections –

Section I : 
deal with general Problems.
Section II : deal with Education at different stages and in different sectors.
Section III : deals with implementation of the various recommendations and programmes suggested by the commission.
Section IV : consists of supplementary papers.

The programmes of educational reconstructions proposed in this Report fall into three broad categories —

1) Internal transformation of the educational system so as to relate it to the life, needs and aspirations of the nation.
2) Qualitative improvement of education so that the standards achieved are adequate, keeping continually rising and, at least in a few sectors become internationally comparable; and,
3) Expansion of educational facilities broadly on the basis of man - power needs and with an accent on equalization of educational opportunities.

  • Set up 12 task forces and 7 working groups.
  • Interviewed 9000 men and women.
  • Spent 100 days.
  • Begin its task on 2nd October, 1964.
  • Report divided into four sections.
  • Programmes categorized into three.


Let us discuss the recommendations of the commission. Our discussion will confined to two major aspects of the recommendations, i.e., education and national objectives and educational structure only. 

Education and National Objectives - 
Education has a very extensive role to play in changing the men and society. It has to be entirely reformed and related to the life, needs and aspirations of the people so that it may serve as a powerful tool of social, economic and cultural transformation. In order to relate education, the commission recommended the following objectives-

1. Increase in Productivity.
2. Promoting social and National Integration
3. Education and Modernization
4. Developing social, moral and spiritual values.

1. Increase in Productivity -
The Commission suggested that education must be related to productivity to increase national income. In order to link education and productivity the Indian Education Commission made the following recommendations.

i) Science is the basic component of education and culture ; so it should be made an integral part of school education.
ii) To inculcate the value of manual work the commission recommended the introduction of work experience in school education.
iii) To meet the increasing needs of technical personnel in Industry, agriculture and trade the IEC recommended to introduce vocational subjects in school curriculum. It also opined that the vocationalisation will bring education into closer relationship with productivity.

2. Promoting social and National Integration –
National and social integration is the precondition for the progress and development of a country. According to the commission, Social and National Integration is an important objective of a national system of education. The commission made the following recommendations for strengthening social and national integration through education.

i) To make education a powerful instrument of national development, common school system of public education should be adopted.
ii) Bridge the gulf between the educated and the uneducated, intellectuals and masses, social and national service should be made an integral part of school education.
iii) A language is a firm adhesive for social and national integration, suitable provisions should be made for teaching mother tongue, Hindi and other Modern Indian languages in schools.

3. Education and Modernisation -

The present society is the science - based society. The present century has made tremendous advancement in scientific and technical knowledge as a result of explosion of knowledge. In such a situation one of the main functions of education is to keep pace with this advancement of         knowledge. Another feature of modern society is the rapid social change. In the situation of change, the school must always be alert if it is to keep abreast of significant changes. An education system which does not renovate itself continuously, becomes out-dated and puts hindrance to progress. To keep pace with modernisation the IEC is of the opinion that “greater emphasis must be placed on vocational subjects, science education and research.”

4. Social, moral and spiritual values -
The national system of education should emphasis on the cultivation of social, moral and spiritual values among students. For this purpose the commission made the following recommendations-

i)The Central and State governments should adopt measures to introduce education in moral, social and spiritual values in all institutions under their direct control on the lines recommended by the University Education Commission on religious and moral instruction.

ii) In order to develop social, moral and religious values, some periods should be provided in the time table. Instruction of this type should be given by general teachers.

iii)The University departments should be specially concerned with the ways in which these values can be taught wisely and effectively and should undertake preparation of the special literature for use by students and teacher.

 Kothari Commission(1964-66) Part 3 >>

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