9 July 2018

GK Quiz on Plant Diseases

GK Quiz on Plant Diseases


1. The scientific study of diseases in plants is known as?
a) Pathology
b) Geology
c) Biology
d) Botany
Answer. A) pathology. Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).

2. Ascomycetes and the Basidiomycetes are a type of?
a) Bacteria
b) Nematodes
c) Fungi
d) Protozoa
Answer. C) Fungi. Most phytopathogenic fungi belong to the Ascomycetes and the Basidiomycetes. The fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually via the production of spores and other structures.

3. Which disease easily recognizeable by the suddent death of all plant tissue including leaves, stems and flowers?
a) Canker
b) Blight
c) Gall
d) Wilt
Answer. B) Blight is easily recognizeable by the suddent death of all plant tissue including leaves, stems and flowers. Blight is typically casued by wet and humid conditions.

4. Which disease is identifiable by a dead area on the stem that is often discoloured?
a) Canker
b) Blight
c) Gall
d) Wilt
Answer. A) canker. Canker is identifiable by a dead area on the stem that is often discolored.

5. Which disease causes swelling that occurs on plants?
a) Leaf Curl
b) Blight
c) Gall
d) Wilt
Answer. C) gall. Leaf gall is a swelling that occurs on plants. Galls will form on roots, stems and branches and are caused by root knot nematodes and insects.

6. Which disease cause leaves to start to drop down and the plant begins to appear lifeless?
a) Wilt
b) Blight
c) Gall
d) Stunting
Answer. A) wilt. Wilt is when leaves start to drop down and the plant begins to appear lifeless. Wilt is usually caused by over or under watering or by pathogens.

7. Which disease cause grey or white powdery coating on the plant?
a) Root Rot
b) Mildew
c) Gall
d) Stunting
Answer. B) Mildew. Mildew is one of the least harmful diseases that occurs on plants. It is easy to identify by a grey or white powdery coating on the plant. It i caused by fungal pathogens.

8. Which fungal pathogens infect and kill host tissue and extract nutrients from the dead host cells?
a) Fusarium
b) Verticillium
c) Magnaporthe grisea
d) NecrotrophicAnswer. D) Necrotrophic. Necrotrophic fungal pathogens infect and kill host tissue and extract nutrients from the dead host cells.

9. What organism causes the type of die-back of a tree’s branches known as canker?
a) Bacteria
b) Fungi
c) Virus
d) All the above
Answer. D) All of the above.
Unlike fireblight this problem spreads only slowly through an area of trees.
Apple canker (caused by a fungus) is the most frequently seen form in the UK.
Usually the disease can be kept in check by regularly pruning out any affected areas. In severe cases a copper-based fungicide may prove useful. Canker is a word used to describe similar effects caused by many different organisms.

10. This is Botrytis cinerea. What is its usual name in the gardening world?
a) Grey disease
b) Grey mildew
c) Grey mould
d) Grey rot
Answer. C) grey mould. A serious disease that has to be dealt with by fruit growers. It can be devastating in a vineyard. Equally it can ruin a crop of tomatoes or strawberries. Its rapid spread and severity is made worse by damp, humid conditions when the air ‘stagnates’. Much can be done to prevent the disease on strawberries by ensuring that there is a good layer of straw beneath the ripening berries. In glasshouses, always ensure adequate ventilation.

11. Sandal spike disease of Sandal (Santalum album) is caused by?
a) Mycoplasma
b) Bacteria
c) Virus
d) Fungi
Answer. A) Mycoplasma.

12. Small, multicellular wormlike animals are known as?
a) Nematodes
b) Mycoplasma
c) Bacteria
d) Protozoa
Answer. A) nematodes. Nematodes are small, multicellular wormlike animals. Many live freely in the soil, but there are some species that parasitize plant roots.

13. Parasitic plants such as mistletoe and dodder are included in the study of?
a) Phytopathology
b) Pathology
c) Geology
d) Biology
Answer. A) Pathology. Parasitic plants such as mistletoe and dodder are included in the study of phytopathology. Dodder, for example, is used as a conduit either for the transmission of viruses or virus-like agents from a host plant to a plant that is not typically a host or for an agent that is not graft-transmissible.

14. The curse of rose growers is rose Black Spot but do you know what type of organism it is caused by?
a) Bacteria
b) Fungus
c) Oomycete
d) Virus
Answer. B) fungus. This damaging disease of roses was prevented in the days of highly-polluted air by the presence of sulphur. Oddly, less roses are grown nowadays because of more Black Spot as a result of cleaner air! Infected leaves develop black or purple spots and patches followed by the leaves dropping prematurely in late summer. Meticulously clear away the leaves around the rose bed each autumn to prevent carry-over of the disease from one year to the next.

15. Attractive looking fungus is a deadly threat to gardeners. What is its name?
a) Beeswax fungus
b) Honey fungus
c) Sugar fungus
d) Syrup fungus
Answer. b) Honey fungus. This insidious disease is the most destructive fungal disease that gardeners must deal with. It lives on and kills plant roots. Most of the activity takes place underground but now and again brown fungi, such as those in the picture, appear at the base of infected plants. No chemical controls are available. The only long-term solution is to excavate and destroy all infected roots, bark and other plant material.

16. Early blight of potato is — disease
a) Soil borne
b) air borne
c) seed borne
d) all of these
answer. A) Soil Borne. The organism referred to as potato blight is scientifically known as Phytophthora infestans. It can also affect tomatoes with equally disastrous consequences. Its spread is dependent upon warm, humid conditions. Copper based fungicides offer some protection. Long-term a solution is likely to be found with the aid of genetic engineering to provide resistant varieties.

17. Wilt of pigeon pea is caused by?
a) Rhizopus nigricans
b) Fusaruim udum
c) Aspergillus flavus
d) Gibberella indica
Answer. b) Fusaruim udum.

18. What is the name given to the group of fungi that create leaf disfiguration similar to that seen below?
a) Plant blemish
b) Plant freckle
c) Plant rust
d) Plant spot
Answer. c) plant rust. There are over 7,000 different ‘varieties’ in the group of fungi that create this type of speckling on plant leaves. Plants are seldom killed but yields are greatly depleted. Plants affected range from wheat to forest trees. In the garden it is most troublesome on chrysanthemums, fuchsias, pelargoniums and roses. Destroy affected leaves and employ strict regimes of hygiene.

19. Black rust or stem rust of wheat is caused by?
a) Puccinia striformis
b) Puccinia recondite
c) Puccinia graminis tritici
d) All of these
Answer. Puccinia graminis tritici. There are over 7,000 different ‘varieties’ in the group of fungi that create this type of speckling on plant leaves. Plants are seldom killed but yields are greatly depleted. Plants affected range from wheat to forest trees. In the garden it is most troublesome on chrysanthemums, fuchsias, pelargoniums and roses. Destroy affected leaves and employ strict regimes of hygiene.

20. The curse of rose growers is rose Black Spot but do you know what type of organism it is caused by?
a) Bacteria
b) Fungus
c) Oomycete
d) Virus
Answer. b) fungus. This damaging disease of roses was prevented in the days of highly-polluted air by the presence of sulphur. Oddly, less roses are grown nowadays because of Blacker Spot because of cleaner air! Infected leaves develop black or purple spots and patches followed by the leaves dropping prematurely in late summer. Meticulously clear away the leaves around the rose bed each autumn to prevent carry-over of the disease from one year to the next.


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